Look at some of the leaves on plants on display (please dont pick the leaves). Eudicot leaves
have a long slightly narrow slightly raised stripe down the middle of the leaf. This is the central
vein. It is a large vascular bundle, containing xylem, phloem
SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR INVERTEBRATE PHYLA
Which of the specimens are:
a. fast moving predatory animals?
b. slow moving or sedentary filter feeders?
What sort of modifications to body form relate to these two very different ways of life?
Examine the demonstration slide of the snail radula.
The body of most adult arthropods is divided into 3 main segments: head, thorax, and
abdomen. Legs are attached the thorax. Draw a few representative specimens and label them
with these terms.
Take special note of the different arthropod appendages. What
Shark skin is covered with scales that are derived from the same tissues as shark teeth. These
scales are called placoid scales. Observe the whole mount slide on the demonstration scope
and sketch a section of the skin.
On the side of the sharks head and
Fern sporophytes produce sporangia in clusters on the back of the fern fronds. Each cluster is
called a sorus (plural: sori). Observe the sori on the dissecting microscope. Draw and label a
fern frond with sori.
Spores are small and very light. When they
1. What type of symmetry is displayed by the specimen?
Figure 4.3 Three types of symmetry
An object with radial symmetry can be cut vertically through the middle in many ways,
producing two halves that are mirror images.
An object with bilateral symmetry
Phylum Coniferophyta (conifers) is the largest modern group of gymnosperms. This group
includes pines, cedars, firs, etc. These trees produce both male and female cones, which are
on display. In the space below, please sketch these cones.
h) Foraminfera are single celled heterotrophs that produce a porous internal shell of calcium
carbonate. They are able to send thin extensions of the cytoplasm through the pores and
capture small prey by phagocytosis. Please draw 2 of the specimens on dem
b) Internal Anatomy
i. Turn the starfish so the aboral surface (not the surface with visible tube feet) faces up. Using
scissors, carefully cut along the sides of two of the arms that are farthest from the madreporite.
ii. Lift the skin from the arms up a
In the space below, draw and label the vascular bundle arrangement for both stem sections on
Monocot stem section
Eudicot stem section
Table 2.1 Summary of Monocot and Eudicot characteristics.
flower parts (petals or
a) Phylum Zygomycota
Rhizopus, common bread mold, is a typical member of the Zygomycota. Rhizopus reproduces
asexually most of the time, producing spores borne on sporangia by mitosis. Occasionally
Rhizopus forms a diploid zygosporangium that produces hap
f) Diatoms are free-living, unicellular organisms that have a unique glass-like cell wall made of
silica. These beautiful organisms are critical members of the marine ecosystem because they
are photoautotrophic, and so make up the base of marine food chai
The water lily is adapted for its leaf to sit on the water surface. List 2 adaptations that make this
D. PLANT DEFENSES
Name three unique anatomical structures on plants that we have already studied in this lab, that
defend a plant against physi
There is a large gas-filled membranous sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. This is
the swim bladder. Swim bladders are evolutionarily closely related (i.e. homologous) to the
lungs. Both swim bladders and lungs evolved from out-pocketing of
V. KINGDOM FUNGI
Fungi are heterotrophs that acquire their nutrients by absorption. The body of a fungus is made
up of many fine strands called hyphae. Many hyphae together form a dense mat known as a
mycelium. When you see fungus growing in nature, you a
What does the capsule produce? _
What kind of cell division occurs inside the capsule? _
Sketch the gametophyte and sporophyte generations on display.
Describe the unique ability that makes moss plants successful on land (see the demo).
Which is the dom
2. Monocot Stem
Observe the slide of a corn stem c.s. from the slide box on your desk under low power. Note
the vascular bundles scattered through the ground tissue, an arrangement typical of monocot
Draw the corn stem c.s., and label the epidermis
What major advantage does an animal with a gastrovascular cavity have over an animal (such
as a sponge) which lacks one?
Tentacles armed with stinging cells (cnidocytes) containing nematocysts are located in a ring
around the single opening into the gas
3. Microbe hunt: DO THIS WHILE YOUR GRAM STAIN SLIDE DRIES
Microorganisms are said to be ubiquitous, meaning they are found everywhere. In this exercise
you will test this common assumption by sampling one of several selected environments,
assigned by lab
Liverworts also produce small cup-shaped structures called gemma cups. The gemma cups
contain small green gemmae, each of which grows into a new haploid liverwort plant. The new
haploid plant develops without any eggs or sperm involved, so this is called
g. Reptiles (Class Reptilia)
Common representatives of this class: _
Reptiles have an amniotic egg with a leathery outer layer. This egg provides the embryo with a
very secure and drought resistant environment to develop in. This evolutionary developmen
c. xylem _
d. phloem _
Observe the roots on display. Roots absorb water and minerals. Most of the absorption is done
by root hairs near the tip of the root, in the top 15 cm of soil. Surface soil contains more
organic matter and thus more minerals. Al
4. Gently rotate the 100x lens into the oil on the slide. Focus with the fine focus knob until
the cells come clearly into view. If a few slow turns in one direction doesn't result in
sharper image appearing, turn the knob slowly back in the other directi
Birds are also the only representatives of Class Reptilia that are endothermic. Give one
advantage and disadvantage of being endothermic:
h. Mammals (Class Mammalia)
Common representatives of this class: _
What two character
b. prop roots of corn
c. aerial roots of an orchid
B. THE STEM
You will cover the anatomy of both eudicot and monocot stems.
1. Eudicot Stem
Observe the slide of a sunflower stem c.s. from the slide box on your desk, first under low power,
EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS IN KINGDOM PLANTAE
As the plant kingdom has evolved from more primitive organisms to more sophisticated
organisms, several major evolutionary trends can be seen.
Using information you have accumulated over the course of this laborat
Study a single vascular bundle on the sunflower slide under medium power. Observe the
arrangement of cells within the vascular bundle. In addition to xylem and phloem, these
vascular bundles contain sclerenchyma and vascular cambium. Both xylem and
Note the initial sets of choices in your key should be based on major anatomical differences,
not something like colour that may change with the season, or surface markings. Look back at
the key in this lab manual see the major distinctions made early in
Gram Stain Procedure
Watch the demonstration of this technique before attempting to make your own slide.
a. Preparing a Bacterial Smear:
1. Obtain a clean dry glass slide. With a wax pencil, draw a circle about 2 cm wide on
the bottom of the glass. You wi
e. Lobe finned fishes (Class Sarcopterygii)
The Coelacanths were thought to have become extinct over 65 million years ago until live
specimens were discovered in deep water off the coast of Madagascar, East Africa, and in parts
of Asia. These fish have sm
3 Skin with scales.
3 Skin with no scales.
4 Skin with hair or fur, mammary glands present
4' Skin without hair or fur, no mammary glands .
5 Skin smooth, toes without claws .
5' Skin with scales .
Next to the whole mount is a cross section slide of Amphioxus. Draw the cross section and
label the dorsal hollow nerve chord and notochord evident in the specimen.
SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA: THE MAJOR CLASSES
Within the Phylum Chordata, the members of