Avoiding Exposure for Skin problems Notes
Avoid home-processed foods if at all possible, especially
those with a low salt and acid content.
Botulism toxin is destroyed at a temperature of 176 F, thus if
you must eat home-processed foods, boil them for 10
Food Botulism Notes
Carried out by deliberate contamination of food or water
In commercial production facilities or restaurants or
Produces either large epidemic (area) outbreak or separated
episodic (time) outbreaks.
Recognition of in
Diagnosis of Skin Care Notes
The symptoms of botulism are similar to those of GuillainBarr syndrome, stroke, and myasthenia gravis.
As a result, botulism is probably substantially underdiagnosed.
Serum electrolytes, renal and liver function tests, complet
Contemporary attempt of the toxin in attack Notes
By Japanese Cult Aum Shinrikyo
Obtained C. Botulinum from soil collected in Northern Japan
Dispersed Botulinum Toxin as aerosols (spray)
- In downtown Tokyo
- US military bases in Japan
History of Botulinum Toxin as bio weapon Notes
Organized weapon programs:
World War II
Japanese invaders (Biological Warfare group Unit 731) fed
cultures of Clostridium Botulinum to prisoners and caused
Later, Germany, US and USSR were all p
Inhalation Botulism Notes
More deadly than food botulism (because smaller lethal dose) but
technically and financially difficult to carry out:
Inactivated by sunlight within 1-3 hours
Detoxified in air within 12 hours
Technically difficult and
Ease of transport Notes
It can be easily transported if not made into aerosolized
C. Botulinum grows naturally in soil and BoNT can stay
stable in still water for weeks
Does not spread by inhalation naturally
Does not enter through sk
Incubation period Notes
The incubation period varies according to the mode of
transmission, rate of absorption of the toxin, and the total
amount and type of toxin.
Foodborne botulism usually takes 24-36 hours to manifest
Wound botulism often take
Treatment of Antitoxin Notes
Antitoxin can halt the progress of symptoms if administered
early to victims of food and wound botulism.
Antitoxin is not given to victims of infant botulism because
when this is diagnosed it is generally too late for the anti
Prevention of Skin Care Issues Notes
Proper food preparation is one of the most effective ways to
limit the risk of exposure to botulism toxin.
Boiling food or water for ten minutes can eliminate some
strains of Clostridium botulinum as well as neutralize