ASSIGNMENT #4
Question 1: (3 marks)
Question 2: (3 marks)
Question 3: (3 marks)
Assignment #4
Page 1/4
ASSIGNMENT #4
Question 4: (5 marks)
In a study of distances travelled by buses before the first major engine failure, a
sampling of 60 buses resulted in
BSTA 320
Assignment 1
Spring 2016
Assignment 1: Decision Analysis (Chapter 5)
Total marks: 20 marks Weight: 8%
Due Date: June 9, 2016
Computer Tool: TreePlan Excel AddIn.
Submit in class, hard copy only.
Assignment can be done in groups of up to 3 studen
Association and Casualty Notes
Generalizability
How do you know that what you found in your research study is, in
fact, a general trend?
Does A really, always cause B?
If A happens, is B really as likely to happen as you claim? Always?
Under certain condi
Central Tendency Notes
Distributions, Percentiles, and Central Tendency
A percentile rank of a score is a single number that gives the percent of
cases in the specific reference group scoring at or below that score.
The mode.
The mode is the score with th
Experiments and Quasi experiments Notes
An Experiment is
A controlled empirical test of a hypothesis.
Hypotheses include:
A is bigger, faster, better than B
A causes B
A changes more than B when we do X
Two requirements:
Independent variable that can be m
Linear Programming Notes
Mathematical programming is used to find the best or optimal solution
to a problem that requires a decision or set of decisions about how
best to use a set of limited resources to achieve a state goal of
objectives.
Steps involved
Operations Research Notes
What is Operations Research?
Operations
The activities carried out in an organization.
Research
The process of observation and testing characterized
by the scientific method. Situation, problem statement, model construction,
vali
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS Notes
Include a wide variety of laboratory and nonlaboratory procedures
Involve measurement
Measurement
Random Assignment
Populations and Sampling
Generalizability
Measurement
Random Assignment
Populations and Sampling
Gener
Solving the Mathematical Model Notes
Many tools are available as discussed in this course
Some lead to optimal solutions
Others only evaluate candidates trial and error to find best course
of action
Example: Collect input data  nurse profiles and demand
Problem Solving Process Notes
Problem Solving Process
Goal: solve a problem
Model must be valid
Model must be tractable
Solution must be useful
The Situation
May involve current operations or proposed developments due to
expected market shifts
May become
Developing LP Model Notes
The variety of situations to which linear programming has been
applied ranges from agriculture to zinc smelting.
Steps Involved:
Determine the objective of the problem and describe it by a
criterion function in terms of the decis
Questionnaires and Surveys Notes
Selfreport measures
Interviews
Questionnaires & surveys
Diaries
Types
Structured
Openended
Advantages
Sample large populations (cheap on materials & effort)
Efficiently ask a lot of questions
Disadvantages
Selfreport is
LP Problems Notes
4. A Transportation Problem
A product is to be shipped in the amounts al, a2, ., am from m
shipping origins and received in amounts bl, b2, ., bn at each of n
shipping destinations.
The cost of shipping a unit from the ith origin to the
Constructing Model Notes
Constructing a Model
Problem must be translated from verbal, qualitative terms to logical,
quantitative terms
A logical model is a series of rules, usually embodied in a computer
program
A mathematical model is a collection of fun
Range Central Tendency Notes
Range and measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode) are
values that summarize a set of data. They are useful when analyzing data.
Outliers
Sometimes there are extreme values that are separated from the rest of the
d
Basic Statistics Vocabulary Terms Notes
Applications in Business and Economics
Accounting
o
Public accounting firms use statistical sampling procedures
when conducting audits for their clients.
Finance
o
Financial analysts use a variety of statistical inf
Law of Large Numbers Notes
Law of Large Numbers
As a procedure is repeated again and again, the relative frequency
probability (from Rule 1) of an event tends to approach the actual
probability.
Probability Limits
The probability of an impossible event is
Mean, Median, and Mode Notes
Using Excel to Compute the Mean, Median, and Mode
Enter the data into cells A1:B13 for the starting salary example.
To compute the mean, activate an empty cell and enter the following
in the formula bar:
=Average(b2:b13) and c
Exploratory Data Analysis Notes
The techniques of exploratory data analysis consist of simple
arithmetic and easytodraw pictures that can be used to summarize
data quickly.
One such technique is the stemandleaf display.
A stemandleaf display shows b
Probability
Key Concept
This section introduces the basic concept of the probability of an
event. Three different methods for finding probability values will be
presented.
The most important objective of this section is to learn how to
interpret probabili
Type of Data Notes
Qualitative Data
Qualitative data are labels or names used to identify an attribute of
each element.
Qualitative data use either the nominal or ordinal scale of
measurement.
Qualitative data can be either numeric or nonnumeric.
The stat
Sample Notes and Exercises Notes
Populations and Samples
The population is the set of all elements of interest in a particular
study.
A sample is a subset of the population.
Descriptive Statistics and Statistical Inference
Descriptive Statistics is tabula
Numerical Methods Notes
Descriptive Statistics: Numerical Methods
Measures of Location
The Mean
The Median
The Mode
Percentiles
Quartiles
Mean
The sample mean is a sample statistic.
The population mean is a population statistic.
Sample Mean
Example: Colle
Quartiles Notes
Let:
Q1 = first quartile, or 25th percentile
Q2 = second quartile, or 50th percentile (also the median)
Q3 = third quartile, or 75th percentile
Lets compute the 1st and 3rd percentiles using the starting salary data.
Note we already comput
Percentile Notes
Percentiles
The pth percentile is a value such that at least p percent of the
observations are less than or equal to this value and at least (100 p)
percent of the observations are greater than or equal to this value.
I scored in the 70th
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