Showing that the conclusion is true
- True Premises
- Conclusion must follow from the premises
False premises may not necessarily leads to false conclusion.
a. Using circles to represent complicated issues
b. Validity links bwt the conclusion an
Should purchase and sale of organs be permitted?
By Gary Becker
THERE were about 50,000 persons on the waiting list for kidney transplants in the United States in the
year 2000, but only about 15,000 kidney transplant operations were performed. This impli
Why a high society is a free society
Drugs should be legalised - their prohibition is an intolerable intrusion into private behaviour
A C Grayling
Sunday May 19, 2002
One measure of a good society is whether its individual members have the autono
1. That hanging a man (or frying him or gassing him) is a dreadful
Trial by Jury
by Richard Dawkins. Published as "Three herring gull chicks . . . the reason juries don't
work" in The Observer (London), Sunday November 16, 1997.
Trial by jury must be one of the most conspicuously bad good ideas anyone ever had. Its
Higher Education: The case against written exams: Employers say graduates
need better communication skills. But university assessment methods neglect
this area, argues Geoffrey Alderman
By GEOFFREY ALDERMAN
Thursday, 27 October 1994
The Government's Chart
Why a high society is a free society
Professor Tan Yoo Guan
Phua Zhi Rong (G7)
Should drugs such as heroin and cocaine be legalized? In the article written by
Grayling, he certainly agrees. In evaluati
FORMAT FOR FINAL EXAMINATION TERM 1 2015-2016 IDIS001
2 HOURS, CLOSED BOOK
PLEASE BRING A 2B PENCIL AND AN ERASER
Section 1. Basic Concepts
10 True/False, 30 marks.
Section 2. Weakening and Strengthening Arguments
5 MCQs, 15 marks.
In previous chapters we talked about what is needed to
understand the arguments we encounter in everyday life.
Most of our attention was focused on understanding other
peoples arguments. But one of t
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
X is necessary for y = y cannot occur without x. (expressed as p only if q)
X is sufficient for y = x occurs, y must occur (if p then q)
1) X is a necessary condition for Y
A does not have X
> A does not have Y
An Argument show that a proposition is true
How good is the argument
- How good are the reasons
- Do the reasons support the conclusion
Arguments and their parts
- To argue for a proposition is to give reasons for believing that the proposition is true.
Some Key concepts in an argument analysis
- Premises / Inference / Conclusion
- Simple or Complex Argument
- Main Argument / Sub Argument
- Basic Premise / Non - Basic Premises
- Explicit premise / hidden Premise
(1) Indentify the main co
It is wrong to do X (Moral Premise)
Doing Y is an instance of X (Factual Premise)
> It is wrong to do Y (Moral Conclusion)
- To cause pain intentionally and without good reasons is morally wrong.
- Some animal experiments cause pain intent
Purpose: to obtain a complete and concise representation of an argument for the purpose of
General guiding principles
Accuracy the reconstruction argument should be true to the arguers intention
Charity the re
From a logical point-of-view, I do not think all Paralympians should be awarded with the same
amount of prize money for their medals compared to Olympians.
Firstly, monetary rewards are recognitions of an athletes achievements and the hard work
Fallacy False Cause
Definition The fallacy committed when an argument mistakenly attempt to establish a
causal connection / made when a conclusion is made based on a causal connection
without sufficient grounds.
To evaluate an argument effectively, one must have a clear
understanding of the argument and its structure. One must
know what is being argued for, what the premises are, and
how the premises com