Poli 1: Introduction to American Government and Politics
Course Syllabus (a.k.a. your most valuable tool in the course)
WINTER 2016
Sara Callow
Office Hours: Wednesdays 11am-12pm, virtually via SKYPE
Email (during the week, I commit to a next day turnarou
Economic Policy Reducing the National Debt
Reducing national debt of the United States is one of the economic policies that both of
our presidential candidates plan to pursue. The federal debt increases each year by more than the
deficit. For FY 2016 the
1. Overview
Chickenpox and Shingles ( herpes zoster> pathogen) are originated by
varicella-zoster virus that causes an itchy, blister-like rash on the skin .
2. Causes
High stress level.
Decrease of natural resistance
immune deficiencies
excess alcohol in
Of mice and man
To attain land and getting a house for the individuals liveliness were the
dreams for many Americans during the Great Depression. In the novel Of Mice and
Man, the two major characters, George and Lennie, both have a dream of working
hard
Essay 1 for English B: Arguing a Position
Due: Wednesday 1/25
The Topic
In Essay 1 you will argue a reasonable position over a debatable issue. You must learn more
about the issue through research, take a distinct and readily identifiable position, presen
Alternative Topics (choose one)
1. Is college worth it?
Do the costs outweigh the benefits of going to college? Write an argumentative-persuasive essay for
whether or not college is valuable today. Do not take for granted that it is or not; rather, prove
Essay 2 for English 1B: Proposing a Solution
The Topic
In this essay you will be defining a problem faced by your community and then proposing a
solution. Choose any aspect of your life such as academics, school clubs, workplaces,
neighborhoods, sports te
4.13. Define and implement a function for
setting the w~dttoi f displayed ellipses
4 14. Write a routlne to display a bar graph in
anv specfled screen area. Input is to include
Ihc data set, labeling for the coordmate ,ixes,
and th,' coordinates for the s
Antialiasing techniques. are discussed in
Pittehay and Watkinson (1980). Crow (1981).
Turkowski (1982), Korein and Badler (1983),
and Kirk and Avro, Schilling, and Wu (1991).
Attribute functions in PHlGS are discussed in
Howard et al. (1991), Hopgood and
and facility layouts are created by arranging
the orientations and sizes of the
component parts of the scene. And
animations are produced by moving the
"camera" or the objects in a scene along
animation paths. Changes in orientation,
size, and shape are a
4-1 7. Suppwe you have d system with an
%inch bv 10 irich video screen that can
display
100 pixels per inch. If a color lookup table
with 64 positions is used with th~ss ystem,
what is the smallest possible size (in bytes)
ior the frame buffer?
4-18. Cons
Objects transformed with Eq. 5-11 are both
scaled and repositioned. Scaling
factors with values less than 1 move objects
closer to the coordinate origin, while
values greater than 1 move coordinate
positions farther irom the origin. Figure
5-7 illustrates
s, am to be applied in We rotate the diagonal
onto they axis and double its length with the
transformaorthogonal
directions
defined by the angular
tion parameters 8 = 45O, s, = 1, and s2 = 2.
displacement 6. In Eq. 535, we assumed that
scaling was to be p
cussed in the previous sections can be
reformulatej so that such transformation
iOmo~eneous Coordinates
sequences can be efficiently processed.
We have seen in Section 5-1 that each of the
basic transformations can be expressed
in the general matrix form
change. The error introduced by this
approximation at each step decreases as the
rotation angle decreases. But even with small
rotat~on angles, the accumulated
error over many steps can become quite
large. We can control the accumulated
error by estimatin
coordinates are translated. A more efficient
approxh would be to combine the
transformations so that the final coordinate
pnsitions are obtained directly from
the initial coordinates, thereby eliminating the
calculation of intermediate coordinate
values.
concatenation, the md~c:dual transformations
would bt applied one at a time
and the number of calnrlations could be
significantly rncrrascd. Ail cff~c~enint:
plementation for the trar~sformatiun
operations, therefor*, is to formulate
transformation
matric
which transforms coordinate positions as
Any real number can be assigned to the
shear parameter sh,. A coordinate position
(.u, y) is then shifted horizontally by an
amount proportional to its distance (y
value) from the x axis (y = 0). Setting sh, to 2,
the explicit calculations for the transformed
coordinates are
Composite Transformations
Chapter 5
Twdlimensional Geometric
Transformations
Final
- - - - - - . . . . . .- . . .- - - - - - - - - - - - -. Figure 5-13
Reversing the order in which a sequence o
We can rewrite these scaling transformations
to separate. the mdtiplicative and
additive terms:
where the additive terms r,(l - s,) and y,(l - s,)
are constant for all points in the
object.
Including coordinat~?fo~r a hxed point in the
scalin~:e quations
of a specified translation vector to move an
object from one position to another.
Similar methods are used to translate curved
objects. To change the position
of a circle or ellipse, we translate the center
coordinates and redraw the figure in
the new loc
the elements of u' to the first row of the
rotation matrix and the elements of v' to
the second row. This can be a convenient
method for obtaining the transfonnation
matrix for rotation within a local (or "object")
coordinate system when we
know the final
General Composite Transformations and
Computational Efficiency
A general two-dimensional transformation,
representing a combination of translations,
rotations, and scalings, can be expressed as
The four elements rs, are the multiplicative
rotation-scaling
about the coordinate origin, we can generate
rotations about any selected pivot
point (x, y,) by performing the following
sequence of translate-rotatetranslate
operations:
1. Translate the object so that the pivot-point
position is moved to the coordinate
X ' = X, + (a - x,) cos V - (y - y,) sin 0
y = , + (1 - v,) sin H + (y - y,) cos B (5-9)
These general rotation equations differ from
Eqs. 5-6 by the inclusion of additive
terms, as well as the multiplicative factors on
the coordinate values. Thus, the
ma
to the origin of the xy system. A unit vector in
the y' direction can then be
obtained as
And we obtain the unit vector u along the x'
axis by rotating v 90" clockwise:
-4 Figure 5-27
Position of the reference frames
shown in Fig. 5-26 after translating
t
and I/, such as Iix, y) = 0, become
homogeneous tytations in the three
parameters
x, y, and 11. 'This just means that if each of
thtl three parameters is replaced
by any value n times that parameter, the
value 7; c,ln he factored out of the equations.
Exp