Key agents causing metamorphic change.
The key environmental components that result in a metamorphic change are heat and pressure.
Both heat and pressure, either collectively or individually, catalyze a solid-state change in a preexisting rock resulting i
Pros and Cons
Create a PowerPoint presentation with your team member. One person will take
the pro side (for the topic) and the other person will take the con side (against the
topic). Each member creates 5 slides on their topic. There will be
1. continental margins
oceanic (mid-ocean) ridges
2. Continental Slope marking the seaward edge of the continental shelf is the continental
Continental Shelf is a gently sloping, submerged surface extending from the shoreline
1. Volcanic are which is built on the overlying plate
A deep ocean trench which forms where sub ducting slabs of oceanic lithosphere bend and
descend into the asthenosphere
A fore arc region which is located between a trench and a volcanic arc
A back- arc
1) Those sedimentary rocks are where your fresh water and oil and natural gas are stored
and are largely responsible for many types of metamorphic rocks and minerals which will
crop up later.
They also make up the greatest parts of mo
1) Five Characteristics of a mineral
a. Natural Occurring, Inorganic, has a crystal structure, Solid, and a definite chemical
2) Primary properties in minerals
b. Streak - streak the color of a mineral's powder
1. Weathering: the disintegration and decomposition of material at or near the surface
Mass wasting: the transfer of regolith, soil, and rock material downslope under the
influence of gravity
Erosion: the incorporation and transportation of
1. Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault.
This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake.
When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other,
Los Angeles is vulnerable and prone to earthquakes and experiences the most damaging
earthquakes. Studies show that southern California is on top of the Pacific and North American
plates and that is why earthquakes are more frequent in this region. Where
2. Tropical moist climates: all months have an average temperature above 18C (64F) no real winter season
Dry climates: deficient precipitation most of the year. Potential evaporatio
1. Metamorphism is defined as physical and chemical changes that occur in pre-existing
rocks (igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary) in the solid state that yield in a lower free
energy state as a result of changes in conditions.
1. Numerical dating is when you are trying to determine how long ago something took place
or specifically how old something or someone is. For example, the extinction of the
dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. Relative dating cannot tell
1. Scientists are able to understand Earth's interior by studying seismic waves. These are
waves of energy that travel through Earth, and they move similarly to other types of
waves, like sound waves, light waves, and water waves.
2. Both o
1) Physical and Historical Geology
a. Physical Geology - Examines the materials composing earth and seeks to understand the
many processes that operate beneath and upon its surface.
b. Historical Geology - Aims to understand the origin of Earth and the de
1. A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives
precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely. There are different
kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperatu
1. Intrusive and extrusive. Intrusive form underground and extrusive form on the surface. The ones
that form underground cool slower and have larger crystals, extrusive rocks are fine-grained.
2. The main factor that determines the te
Glacier is formed from compacted layers of snow. Glaciers begin to form when snow
remains in the same area year-round, where enough snow accumulates to transform into
ice. Each year, new layers of snow bury and compress the previous laye
1. Shore is the land along the edge of a sea, lake, broad river, etc.
The shore divided into the foreshore and the backshore. The foreshore is the area that is
exposed when the tide is out and submerged when the tide is in. The backshore is
1. The hydrologic cycle begins with the evaporation of water from the surface of the ocean.
As moist air is lifted, it cools and water vapor condenses to form clouds. Moisture is
transported around the globe until it returns to the surface
1. Temperature and Composition
2. Gases, Pyroclastic materials, and Lava flows
3. Shield volcanoes are among the largest on Earth. These gently-sloping domes are
associated with relatively quiet eruptions of fluid basaltic lava. They contai
1. Porosity - is a measure of how much of a rock is open space. This space can be between
grains or within cracks or cavities of the rock
Permeability - is a measure of the ease with which a fluid (water in this case) can move
through a por
1. Compressional Stress Differential stress that squeezes a rock mass as if placed in a
vise is known as compressional stress. They are most often associated with convergent
Tensional Stress Differential stress that pulls
1. Continental drift theory states that the earth was once a single continent that separated
during the geologic time. Upon further investigation he noticed the following clues that
he used to support his hypothesis. Fit of S. America and Africa Fossils -