Italy and Greece. At Chiusi in Etruria, " they are found
on the soil in a certain slope beneath the city, called,
from the abundance of such discoveries, * the jewellers'
field,' where they are turned
up by the plough, or washed
to light by the rains " (i
Petrie Coll. have been attributed to him.
Petabastet. Scarabs rare. Five in the B.M.
Ankh-Heru, son of Tchet-Amen-af-ankh. Possibly the
rather worn scarab in the Petrie Coll., reading Ra-Maat-neb
Ankh-Heru, belongs to this prince or chieftain. It is proba
A comparison of the forms of scarabs is of immense help
at times in determining period, and the distinctions should
be carefully studied. The drawings which accompany
the present text have been made from actual specimens in
various collections and are cha
five feet upright without letting the glaze become burnt
though agate and faience examples are known. The
hieroglyph as a determinative signifies "to run," from
which the meaning of the amulet may be gathered.
Urs, or Pillow Amulet (D). The ob
gold, brought to the deceased the pterco-tion
of Isis and of her words of power ;
and also gave him access to every place in
the Underworld. After being dipped in water
in which ankham flowers had been steeped, the
amulet was attached to the neck of the d
in gold, which was found on the necklace of a
Seqeq, or Plummet Amulet (D). The Seqeq or Plummet
amulet, which is shaped like a mason's plummet, bsoylm-izes
moral integrity, according to
Budge, or, as Petrie suggests, was
" probably worn to impart
Shuti bifurcates at the top as curls, and represents two
ostrich plumes. The Qa has the meaning of " elevation "
the Shuti indicates the power and swiftness of flight,
as of a feather before the wind. Both amulets date
from the eighteen
set in precious metal or simply pierced through
for suspension. The human tooth does not
seem to have been used, but those of the crocodile,
shark or hyaena. Nazhis, following the form
of human teeth, were made in faience or carved
in bone, sh
In pre-historic burials its position
was always on the forehead of the deceased.
Grapes Amulet (M). A rare, but not very interesting
Roman amulet, of which the meaning is unknown.
Possibly it has links of connection with
which is neither rare nor very common, repre- sents
an open right or left hand, and was
usually made in carnelian, agate or faience.
A bone one is also noted by Petrie. Det amulets go back
to the sixth dynasty. They indicate power of acti
use covers the whole period of ancient Egyptian history.
Spherical and date-shaped msepencsiare
most common, but others
take the form of a flattened oval.
The amulet is found in a great
variety of materials. Messrs. Spink
of London possessed a green glass
Ari simply represents the power
of sight, and is drawn like the
human eye, without the ctiononvaelnmarkings
which are cteharirasct-ic
of the Uzat (q.v.). Some
amulets have three Aris in a row. They are made
for the most part of green or blue-green glaze,
(from "/"v\aKTik 69,fittedto guard).
V. " Figures of Gods, or Theophoric Amulets (from
6e6s, god, and (popeco, I bear, or wear).
In the account here given, Professor Petrie's grouping
has not been followed, but for the convenience of any
who may wish to u
Aegis of Bast, I sis,etc. (T). This not uncommon amulet
is a model " usually in bronze, sometimes in faience "
of a deep beadwork collar, supported at the back by
a handle, which is attached to it at right angles, and
which takes the form
itself. Possibly it had some connection
with Khu, who was a god of light. To
the deceased it
gave power to " behold
Ra at his coming forth in the horizon." Though blue
glaze specimens are known, red is the prevailing colour of
red granite, r
Ushabti. Ushabti is the name given to figurines in
the form of a mummy deposited with the dead. Their
function was to carry out for the deceased in the Uwnodreldrthe
tasks imposed upon them in the Hall of Jmeudngt,such as digging, ploughing, sowing, etc.
senses. From the resemblance of the hieroglyph to the
long-haired men of Punt with their turned-up beards,
Petrie surmises that the amulet may be much earlier.
The Tep is rare, and most of the known examples are in
faience. It appears to us doubtful wheth
Wagtail. The Wagtail as an Egyptian hieroglyph
signifies " great "
" great one
; whence it is inferred
SACRED ANIMALS 177
that the very rare Ur or Wagtail amulet (D) was intended
to confer greatness. There are three specimens in the
Ra-meri Pepi I., a king of the sixth dynasty : and the
twelfth dynasty Sphinxes of Usertsen I. and Amen-emhat
III., in the Cairo Museum. The latter was thought
by Mariette to be the portrait of a Hyksos king, but it is
now regarded as of Amen-em-hat III.
of the animal were buried in her city. Pliny relates
that Shrewmice were passed round boils to arrest imanftilaomn,and Petrie supposes that the bronze figures on
SACRED ANIMALS 173
the little mummy cases had the same meaning. Possibly,
also, the rather un
and chap, xxxix. of the Book of the Dead describes his
daily " or rather nightly conflict with the sun-gods Ra
and Horus. Whether Apepi was also the mighty Serpent
of tradition, thirty cubits long, who lived on the top of
Bakhau, the Mountain of the Sunri
neighbourhood of the Papyrus Swamps, and it was during
her temporary absence from her son Horus that one of the
Scorpions stung the divine boy until he died. The amulet
of the Scorpion, which is rare, usually occurs in bronze ;
but specimens in stone and
A third form of Serpent amulet is the Menqaryt (P),
which consists of a head only, or, at most, the half figure.
The amulet was worn as a protection from snake-bite in
predynastic times, and continued in use to the twentysixth
dynasty. " In pr
by Petrie. The Si-nehem goes back to the most
ancient times and was still in use under the Roman
dominion. The Locust of Egypt was probably Oedipoda
migratoria, whose ravages are graphically described in
Lynx. The Lynx was supposed to be on the w
disk and uraeus of the goddess. The amulet is rare. In
one of the wall-paintings at Beni Hassan is an admirably
executed drawing of an Oxyrhynchus, and representations
of the fish are found on many other monuments, notably
the temple of the Great Oasis. T
evening were guarded by two Lion-gods " the Alcerui
(Gods of the Egyptians, ii. 360, 361). Human heads were
given to such statues, and these were the Sphinxes, whose
prototype is the colossal Sphinx at Gizeh, a monument
anterior to Khephren, the builder o
is expressed the intelligence of a man, the swift flight of a
bird and the strength and lithe motions of the Leopard
(ibid.). The Leopard was one of the animals hunted by
the Egyptians, and leopard-skins were among the objects
brought from the " land of P