Chapter 5: Understanding Buyer Behavior and
the Communication Process
Consumer Behavior Activities and decision processes directly involved in obtaining,
consuming, and disposing of products and services.
LO 1: CONSUMERS AS DECISION MAKERS We can think of
1. Information Search and Alternative Evaluation Once a consumer recognizes a
need they are not sure the best way to satisfy that need. So consumers acquire
Internal Search Search for product information that draws on personal
Changes occurred in advertising because of the Industrial Revolution. The shift from
household self-sufficiency to relying on the market place forced manufacturers to
stimulate demand to gain capital.
The large concentrations of populations required a
Designer Era (1980 -1992) Consumers had a lot of income to spend in the 1980s. Greed was
good, stuff was good, and advertising was good. Many ads from this era were particularly socialclass conscious and values conscious. They openly promoted consumption
Chapter 3: The Evolution of Promoting Brands
LO 1: THE RISE OF ADVERTISING Advertising came into being what it is now because
of four major factors:
1. The rise of capitalism
2. The Industrial Revolution
3. Branding as a way for manufacturers to assert po
LO 3: EVOLUTION OF PROMOTION Promotion has evolved toward todays focus on
brands and an integrated effort at marketing and brand communication. We will look at this
evolution of promotion in terms of several periods in history.
Benefit Positioning A positioning option that features a distinctive customer benefit.
User Positioning A positioning option that focuses on a specific profile of the target
Competitive Positioning A positioning option that uses an explicit re
Advertising Agencies began having stories spread that they were doing motivation
research and using the psychological sell, which only served to fuel an underlying
suspicion of advertising.
Subliminal Advertising These were advertisements alleged to w
Software Firms A new interesting and complex category of facilitators in advertising and
promotion. These firms provide software that gathers and analyzes data on the behavior of Web
surfers, streams audio and video files, and manages relationships with t
Habit or Variety Seeking This occurs in settings where a decision isnt involving and an
experienced consumer repurchases from the category over and over again, the mode of purchase
is some combination of habit and variety seeking.