become a Law, be presented to the President of the
United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if
not he shall return it, with his Objections to that
House in which it shall have originated, who shall
enter the Objections at large on their Journal,
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the
Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining,
the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as
may be employed in the Service
the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its
Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the
Concurrence of the Senate and House of
Representatives may be necessary (except on a
question of Adjournment) shall be
Article 138. The capital of the People's Republic of
China is Beijing.
AMENDENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
AMENDMENT ONE (Approved on April 12, 1988, by
the 7th NPC at its 1st Session)
1. Article 11 of the Constitution shall include a new
paragraph which reads:
Revised to: "Citizens' lawful private property is
inviolable" and "The State, in accordance with law,
protects the rights of citizens to private property and
to its inheritance" and "The State may, in the public
interest and in accordance with law, exprop
13 Provision on the National Anthem:
Title of Chapter IV: "The National Flag, the National
Emblem and the Capital"
Revised to: "The National Flag, the National
Anthem, the National Emblem and the Capital"
Article 136 has a second paragraph added: "The
Revised to: ". to decide on entering the state of
emergency throughout the country or in particular
provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities
directly under the Central Government."
Article 80: "The President of the People's Republic
of China . pro
people's democratic dictatorship and follow the
socialist road, steadily improve socialist institutions,
develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist
legal system and work hard and self-reliantly to
modernize industry, agriculture, national defense
State encourages citizens to take part in voluntary
11. Article 98 which reads "The term of office of the
people's congresses of provinces, municipalities
directly under the Central Government and cities
divided into districts is five years. The t
the first Monday in December, unless they shall by
Law appoint a different Day.
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and
a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do
5 Second paragraph of Article 11:"The State
protects the lawful rights and interests of the
individual and private sectors of the economy, and
exercises guidance, supervision and control over
individual and the private sectors of the economy."
limits prescribed by law. The private economy is a
complement to the socialist public economy. The
State protects the lawful rights and interests of the
private economy, and guides, supervises and
administers the private economy."
It is revised into: "Ind
personnel and decide on major issue concerning
operation and management according to law."
10. The their item of Article 42 which reads "Work is
the glorious duty of every able-bodied citizen. All
working people in State enterprises and in urban
convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of
the Members present.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend
further than to removal from Office, and
disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor,
Trust or Profit under the United Sta
Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be
laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or
enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
autonomous regions and municipalities directly
under the Central Government and of deputies
elected from the armed forces. All the minority
nationalities are entitled to appropriate
Revised to: "The National People's Congress is
The State strengthens formulating economic laws,
improves macro adjustment and control and forbids
according to law any units or individuals from
interfering with the social economic order."
8. Article 16 which reads "State enterprises have
Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays
of the Members of either House on any question
shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be
entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress,
shall, without the Consent of the
country with a high level of culture and democracy."
One section is added to Article Five of the
Constitution as the first section: "The People's
Republic of China practices ruling the country in
accordance with the law and building a socialist
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not
have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and
been seven Years a Citizen of the United States,
and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of
that State in which he shall be chosen.
nationalities will continue to adhere to the people's
democratic dictatorship, follow the socialist road,
persist in reform and opening-up, steadily improve
socialist institutions, develop socialist democracy,
improve the socialist legal system and work h
Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and
proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing
Powers, and all other Powers vested by this
Constitution in the Government of the United States
House, they shall not be questioned in any other
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time
for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil
Office under the Authority of the United States,
which shall have been created, or the Emolumen
The Senate of the United States shall be composed
of two Senators from each State, chosen by the
Legislaturethereof, for six Years; and each Senator
shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in
Consequence of the first Election, they
11 Article 81: "The President of the People's
Republic of China receives foreign diplomatic
representatives on behalf of the People's Republic
Revised to: "The President of the People's Republic
of China, on behalf of the People's Republic of
difficulties and hardships. China will stay in the
primary stage of socialism for a long period of time.
The basic task of the nation is to concentrate its
efforts on socialist modernization by following the
road of building socialism with Chinese
congresses of workers and staff and in other ways in
accordance with the law."
9. Article 17 which reads "Collective economic
organizations have decision-making power in
conducting independent economic activities, on
condition that they accept the guidanc
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and
among the several States, and with the Indian
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and
uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies
and marketing, credit and consumers' cooperatives
belong to the sector of the socialist economy under
collective ownership by the working people. Working
people who are members of rural economic
collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed
the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted.
The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of
the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if
institutions, develop socialist democracy, improve
the socialist legal system and work hard and selfreliantly to modernize industry, agriculture, national
defense and science and technology step by step to
turn China into a socialist country with prosperi
common defence, promote the general Welfare, and
secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution
for the United States of America.
All legislative Powers herein granted shal
necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the
net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any
State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of
the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws
shall be subject to the Revision and Controu
force in the national economy. The State ensures
the consolidation and growth of the Stateowned
6. The first item of Article 8 which reads "Rural
people's communes, agricultural producers'
cooperatives, and other forms of cooperative
the socialist economy under collective ownership by
the working people.
Working people who are members of rural economic
collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed
by law, to farm plots of cropland and hilly land
allotted for private use, en