Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Curtin University of Technology
FLUID MECHANICS 230
For Second-year Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering students
TUTORIAL SHEET 4: Corrections
2 The question should state that forces generated by the pressure o
Structure of Crystalline Solids
Crystalline Structures
Have long range order,
ie. the atoms are
orderly arranged in a
repeating or periodic
array over large atomic
distances
The crystal structure of
a solid is determined
by the manner in which
atoms, i
Stacking Sequences of Closed-Packed
Structures
Both FCC and HCP
are closed-packed
structures but have a
very different stacking
sequence of atoms.
(a) A portion of a close-packed plane of atoms; A, B,
and C positions are indicated. (b) The AB stacking
se
Crystallographic Directions and Planes
Crystallographic Directions [uvw]
Steps for determining the Miller
indices [uvw] of directions:
Using a right-handed coordinate
system, determine the
coordinates of two points that lie
on the direction.
Subtract the
X-Ray Diffraction
Allows information about the crystal structure of material
to be obtained.
(a) Destructive and (b) constructive interactions between x-rays and the crystal structure of a
material. Diffraction occurs at angles that satisfy the Bragg equ
Noncrystalline Materials
Gases
The atoms or molecules
have no order and are
bonded together by very
weak covalent and Van
der Waals bonding
forces.
Inert gases have no regular
ordering of atoms.
Liquids
The molecules have no
order and are bonded
toget
Imperfections in Solids
All solids contain large number of
imperfections or deviations from crystalline
perfection.
Only single crystals have a near perfect
crystalline structure.
Presence of imperfections has a profound
influence on the material prope
Atomic Movement
Atoms move through a
solid material by
diffusion mechanisms,
particularly at high
temperatures when a
concentration gradient is
present.
Diffusion of copper atoms into nickel. Eventually, the
copper atoms are randomly distributed throughou
Secondary or Van der Waals Bonding
Exists between
virtually all atoms or
molecules but it is
very weak when
compared to the
primary bonding.
Bonding arises from
attraction between
atomic or molecular
dipoles.
Fluctuating Induced
Dipole Bonds
Attractio
Bondings in Solids, Liquids & Gases
Primary Inter-atomic Bonds
Ionic Bonding
Found in compounds that are composed of both
metallic and non-metallic ions; eg. NaCl
The attractive forces are coulombic, ie. positive and
negative ions attract one another.
Atomic Bonding in Solids
Atomic bonding in solids is the net sum of the
distance-dependent forces or energies:
attractive (FA) and repulsive (FR) forces
attractive (EA) and repulsive (ER) energies which are.
The net force (FN) or net energy (EN) betwe
Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Curtin University of Technology
FLUID MECHANICS 230
For Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering
CHAPTER 6 TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
(Viscous Flow in Pipes)
(1).
At 30 C, glycerine (viscosity = 0.4 Ns/m2, density = 1,260 kg
Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Curtin University of Technology
FLUID MECHANICS 230
For Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering
CHAPTER 7 TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
(Pipe Components, Piping Systems)
(1).
At 20 C, water (viscosity = 1.15 10-3 Ns/m2, densit
Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Curtin University of Technology
FLUID MECHANICS 230
For Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering
CHAPTER 8 TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
(Flow over Immersed Body)
(1).
A cylinder (diameter D = 0.1m, length L = 1.0m) is immersed
Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Curtin University of Technology
FLUID MECHANICS 230
For Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering
CHAPTER 9 TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
(Modelling, Dimensional Analysis and Similitude)
(1).
The pressure gradient P/L in turbule
Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Curtin University of Technology
FLUID MECHANICS 230
For Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering
CHAPTER 10 TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
(Pumps)
(1). A centrifugal pump has the characteristics shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. T
1. Atomic Structure
Each atom consists of
a nucleus with orbiting
electrons.
Nucleus = protons +
neutrons
Atomic mass (A) =
total mass of protons
and neutrons (N).
Atomic number (Z) =
number of protons
Electrons are negatively charged (1.6 1019 C)
P
12. Semiconductivity
Semiconductors may be either elements (eg. Si & Ge) or covalently bonded compounds (eg.
CdS, GaAs, etc.)
With these materials, in addition to free electrons, holes may also participate in the
conduction process.
On the basis of electr
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Engineering Mathematics 140 - Notes for Lecture 1
1
Vector Geometry
Overview: We introduce the concept of vectors in 2 and 3 space, including some elementary vector operations and component notation.
Motivation: Vectors are an elementary tool in engineeri
Engineering Mathematics 140 - Notes for Lecture 2
1
Vector Geometry
Overview: We introduce the notation using standard unit basis vectors, the dot (or
scalar) product between vectors and some of its applications.
Motivation: Most engineering texts use the
Engineering Mathematics 140 - Notes for Lecture 3
1
The Cross Product and Applications
Overview: We introduce the cross product for vectors in 3 space and look at some
applications.
Motivation: The cross product has many uses in engineering problems. In p
Engineering Mathematics 140 - Notes for Lecture 4
1
Lines in 3 Space
Overview: We introduce the general equations of a line in 3 space and several applications.
Motivation: The vector equations of lines are a preview of more general vector valued
function
Engineering Mathematics 140 - Notes for Lecture 5
1
Planes in 3 Space
Overview: We introduce the general equations of a plane in 3 space and several applications.
Motivation: Planes are examples of more general multivariable functions we will meet
later i
Engineering Mathematics 140 - Notes for Lecture 7
1
Introduction to Matrices
Overview: We look at matrices and basic matrix operations such as addition and multiplication. We also introduce the ideas of symmetric matrices and inverses.
Motivation: Matrice