11.4 Comprehensive present
329
reason there are in space asymptotically free particles, and that just means
asymptotically separable alternatives.
In the approximation of separable alternatives we could reconstruct quantum theory with a real time coordina
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9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
fact also for the -functions. It is completely legitimate that two dierent
observers describe the same process with two dierent -functions according
to their prior knowledge. In particular, A may c
268
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
neither is it a contradiction to admit that the same density matrix can be built
from dierent systems of basis vectors; as already for the pure state, it only
means that it expresses probabilities
10
The stream of information
10.1 The quest for substance
Sinnend der Weise. . .
Sucht den ruhenden Pol in der Erscheinungen Flucht.
Schiller, Der Spaziergang
Transience is a basic human experience.
What was the stability of Egyptian art striving for if n
282
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
Wheeler (1978) calls the EPR experiment a thought experiment with delayed choice. We can paraphrase this as follows. In the spirit of the quantum
theory of measurement one can regard each of the tw
10.2 The stream of information in quantum theory
303
excess information in the first answer is simply the information contained in
the concept of a living being (p. 353).6
Both answers thus explain meaningful but dierent concepts of information needed in
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9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
Einstein tried, up to the Solvay Congress of 1930, to find internal contradictions in quantum mechanics. He did this mainly by inventing thought
experiments in which quantities were measurable whic
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9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
9.1.6 Heisenberg
) Quantum mechanics.
In contrast to the three physicists mentioned above and perhaps all of the older
physicists except Bohr, Heisenberg from the outset had a skeptical philosophic
246
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
them light was a pure field whose significance, however, lay in the probability
of certain processes in matter which was described as pure particles. This was
more a solution of the third type but
230
8 Information and evolution
II.6.6.2. Here, while aiming at the biological aspect, we need not yet consider
these problems.)
For the functioning of organisms as well as for evolution, the actually steering information, lying above the syntactic level,
10.3 Mind and form
307
and the mind of an observer a central theme. We have just not asserted that
because quantum theory is applicable to his body it also must be applicable to
his mind. Just the converse, we have said, as far as decidable alternatives e
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9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
The question then was from which classical theory one ought to start. For
matter one started with classical point mechanics and obtained through quantization Schr
odingers wave mechanics in configu
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9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
which one may disregard, in a certain approximation, the noncommutativity.
But we do not follow Neumanns leveling assumption (Sect. 9.1h) that every
bounded self-adjoint operator represents a permi
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9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
according to our present knowledge. We have, however, seen at the end of the
previous section that from our point of view duality is not a fundamental but
a derived fact. Even if one does not accep
References
351
Weizs
acker, C. F. v. (1931). Ortsbestimmung eines Elektrons durch ein Mikroskop.
Z. Physik, 70:114130.
Weizs
acker, C. F. v. (1934). Nachwort zu einer Arbeit von K. Popper (1934). Naturwiss., 22:808.
Weizs
acker, C. F. v. (1939). Der zweit
276
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
obeys quantum theory, and according to our last assumption Y s consciousness
obeys it. What prevents us from considering both merely as dierent aspects of
one and the same reality? Why should not Y
264
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
We summarize: is knowledge, and knowledge depends on the information
collected by the knowing subject. Knowledge is of course not dreaming, not
merely subjective. It is knowledge of objective facts
11.2 Facticity of the future
319
Yet I must admit that I have also made no attempt to test prophecies
empirically, and that I have a deep aversion to doing so. Here perhaps a deeper
moral legitimacy of the scientific objection reveals itself. Shall we kno
11.4 Comprehensive present
327
11.4 Comprehensive present
The two previous sections are in a way mirror images of each other. The thesis
of the facticity of the future representshypotheticallythe present in the
usual form of the past. The thesis of the po
11
Beyond quantum theory
Nebo.
5. Mose 34,1
11.1 Crossing the frontier
We wish to know what lies beyond the limits of our knowledge. This desire
is characteristic of humans. It is particularly characteristic of humans of the
Western culture which was mold
238
8 Information and evolution
preliminaries to logic, Sect. 3: Pragmatic interpretation of the bivalence of logic
initially goes back to a property of the simplest behavioral patterns in animals
(p. 301). Such a pattern is a sequence of activities which
cker
Carl Friedrich von Weizsa
Foundation
Preamble
In Carl Friedrich von Weizs
acker the nowadays more than ever necessary
intercultural and interdisciplinary dialog has found one of its most important
proponents. He is one of the few great thinkers who c
288
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
Formally the opposite path was chosen by classical physics. It coined the
concept of Being of its objects through things of everyday life, which it stylized, for the mathematical description, as ex
12.4 Metaphysics
345
ical models of such experiences have already been seriously considered. For
it is not easy to see what one there must search for. There are many indications that, e.g., the broadly based parapsychological investigations pursue
a less
12.2 Philosophy of science
335
ism also starts that way, but soon continues: But, though all our knowledge
begins with experience, it by no means follows that all arises out of experience
Critique of Pure Reason, B1). Empiricism, on the other hand, seeks
12
In the language of philosophers
12.1 Exposition
This chapter will, as a supplement, outline a sketch of the philosophy already
contained in the reconstruction1 of physics.
Philosophy as an afterthought is already a philosophical program. In its
classic
270
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
that which is known, namely the -function, is only a catalog of probabilities,
hence knowledge itself.
We elucidate the meaning of this comment separately for the observer and
for the object. As an
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9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
a prediction about the two mutually exclusive mental events that happen to
his friend: x1 = F is seeing a flash of light, x2 = F does not see a flash of
light. He is now asking his friend: Have you
11.5 Beyond physics
331
common and fruitful attitude. But, to be sure, it has never produced a scientific revolution, a closed theory. It precludes the conservative from feeling the
pain due to the inconsistencies of the existing. For this reason scientis
11.1 Crossing the frontier
313
one arrive at the necessary conservative rigor for future empirical questions
which at most could lead to the point that the theory might empirically be
falsified and replaced by a better one.
The actual revolutionary elemen