The Subjectivity of Values
Section 1: Moral Skepticism
Starts off by saying there are no objective values
3 Reactions to this
1. False and pernicious: a threat to morality
2. Trivial truth, too plain
3. meaningless or empty
Says what hes saying is called
Uncontroversial Evaluative Relativity
Basically, Herman says that theres a difference better Its bad and Its bad for us in
many situations. When statement like its bad is made, it usually is in reference to
yourself and an audience. If not, logic is weir
Relativism has 3 components
Right means right for a given society
Right for a given society should be understand in a functional sense
Therefore, it is wrong for people in one society to condemn the values of another
Modified verification principle - tests whether a sentence expresses a genuine empirical
Things are empirical if they rely on the senses
The role of philosophy in regards to the empirical sciences is not to do a priori examination
Dworkin - Objectivity and Truth
A popular academic view now is that there is no real or objective truth because of the results of
-general, all-encompassing attack on the very idea of objective truth
-Denial that there is an
Albert Camus (1913-1960)
Thomas Nagel (1937-present)
Is life absurd?
What are the consequences of lifes being absurd (if indeed it is)?
Believes life is absurd because we futily look for meaning, and the world cant give it to
Reason alone can never be a motive to any action of the will
Reason can never oppose passion in the direction of the will
Demonstration and volition (the act of doing something) are removed in the same way that
mathematics is separate from its usefu
Quinn - God and Morality Notes
Perhaps ethics can only be securely anchored in a scientific culture if it is grounded or based on
According to Aquinas, a Catholic priest, natural laws exist, but they exist because of eternal law
Ethics regards conduct. Moore defines it as what is considered good. Limiting it is silly to him.
Books are good is an ethical judgment to Moore.
Casuistry - clever but unsound reasoning
To Moore, it is the goal of ethical investigation (5)
Moral standards are normative: they dont merely describe a way in which we in fact regulate
our conduct; they make claims on us; they command, oblige, recommend, or guide.
The normative question - What justifies (or motivates, or explains the claims that
Hume says that no descriptive statements can lead to evaluative statements without at least
one evaluative premise. Otherwise, you fall to the Naturalistic Fallacy
(I) Jones uttered the words "I hereby promise to pay you, Smith, five dollars."
(2) Jones p