Cognitive development in Children Notes
The cognitive development of newborn infant is difficult to
understand or observe it.
The newborn infant expresses his emotion just through cry for
hunger, pain or discomfort sensation
Growth and Development of Children Notes
Growth refers to an increase in physical size of the whole body or
any of its parts.
It is simply a quantitative change in the childs body.
It can be measured in Kg, pounds, meters, inches, . etc
Growth Patterns Notes
The childs pattern of growth is in a head-to-toe direction, or
cephalocaudal, and in an inward to outward pattern called
Factors affecting growth and development:
Motor Development Notes
At 2 months
Hold head erects in mid-position.
Turn from side back.
At 3 months, the infant can
Hold head erects and steady.
Open or close hand loosely.
Hold object put in hand
At 4 months, the infant can:
Sit with adequate support.
Childhood Obesity Notes
Definition of obesity: body weight in excess of 20% of norm
Obesity is the second leading cause of death in the US
60% of American adults are overweight
30% of American children are overweight, while 16% are
35-40% of African
Middle Childhood Basic Information Notes
Middle childhood: 6 to 12 years
Height & Weight
Boys and girls grow about 2 inches a year
Adolescent growth spurt
Average weight gain is 5 to 7 pounds per year
Individual differences are normal in m
Newborn Senses Notes
It is the most highly developed sense.
It is mostly at lips, tongue, ears, and forehead.
The newborn is usually comfortable with touch.
Pupils react to light
Newborn stage Notes
Newborn stage is the first 4 weeks or first month of life. It is a
transitional period from intrauterine life to extra uterine
Normal Newborn Infant
- Weight = 2.700 4 kg
- Wt loss 5% -10% by 3-4 days after
Causes of Dyslexia Notes
25-60% of children who have dyslexia, have one parent
who also has dyslexia
40% of siblings of children with dyslexia also have
Faulty wiring in left side of brain
Angular gyrus: translates visual input in
Challenges of ADHD Notes
Problems with Transitions
Acting as if rules dont apply to them
Adopting negative attitudes out of frustration
Experiencing isolation from peers
Poor grades, different learning styles
Exercise and Fitness in Adolescents and Children Notes
Exercise reduces risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and
Psychological benefits: better self-image, better coping skills
Cardiac and muscular fitness is developed by participation in
Fostering Awareness Notes
Using a rating scale, ranging from seldom to usually, clients
respond to a series of statements regarding their emotional
entanglement, for example:
I struggle to identify and express my feelings
I put others needs before m