Leveling-Theory and Methods
Leveling is the process by which elevations of points or
differences in elevation are determined.
Areas of Application
Design of highways, railroads, canals, etc.
Layout construction projects according to specific design
Calcul
Area Determination
Area is considered to be the orthogonal projection of
the surface onto a horizontal plane.
Reasons for determining areas:
To calculate earthwork volume.
To determine the acreage of fields, lakes,
etc
To determine the number of square
DISTANCE MEASUREMENT
Distance Definition:
C
B
The horizontal distance between two points.
In ground surveys even though many angles
may be read, the length of at least one line
must be measured to supplement the angles
in locating points.
A
Measurement Te
ENGI3703- Surveying and Geomatics
Fall 2007
Lab 4: Stationing a Reference Line, Profile Leveling
Objective:
To practice profile leveling techniques and develop and demonstrate excellent note
keeping practices.
Preparation: Read chapter 5, section 5.9 in t
ENGI3703- Surveying and Geomatics
Fall 2007
Lab 6: Horizontal Curve Layout
Objective:
To gain familiarity with the theory, design and layout of Horizontal curves for
most types of transportation routes, such as highways, railroads, pipelines, etc,.
Prepar
ENGI3703- Surveying and Geomatics
Fall 2007
Lab 1: Measurement of Horizontal Distance
Objectives:
To introduce the concepts of horizontal distance measuring instruments and
the associated errors that may have committed during measurements.
Preparation: Re
ENGI3703- Surveying and Geomatics
Fall 2007
Lab 3: Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Angle
Objective:
To motivate the students to use the techniques and present the concepts of angles
and coordinates.
Preparation: Read chapter 8 in the Elementary Sur
Curve Layout (Lab Exercise)
The station of PI is 0 +100.000
I = 12051
R = 400 m
Stake the curve at 20 m increments.
PI Station
"T
PC Station
+L
PT Station
#
" &
0
L = RI = 400%12.85 *
= 89.710 m
0(
$
'
180
"12.850 %
"I%
T = R * tan$ ' = 400* tan$
' = 45.0
Profile Leveling
Profile leveling yields elevations at definite points along
a reference line.
Used in designing linear facilities:
Highways
Railways
Transmission lines
Canals
Sewers
Water mains
Staking and Stationing the Reference Line
Reference Li
ENGI3703- Surveying and Geomatics
Fall 2007
Lab 2: Differential Leveling
Objective:
To introduce the method of differential leveling and to learn basic techniques
of leveling, and to practice standard note taking protocol for fieldwork.
Preparation: Read
Angle Measurement
Determining the relative positions of points often involves
measurements of both angles and distances.
Angles are classified as either horizontal or vertical.
Vertical
(zenith)
Horizontal
(bearings or azimuths)
Basic Components of an Ang
ENGI3703- Surveying and Geomatics
Fall 2007
Lab 5: Area Determination
Objective:
To familiarize the students with the use of recent technologies in surveying for
area determination for engineering applications.
Preparation: Read chapter 12 in the Elementa