Static Equilibrium
Experiment (8)
1 Aim of the experiment
You investigate in this experiment the conditions of static equilibrium.
2 Introduction
An object is in static equilibrium when it position and orientation, with respect to a reference
frame, does

(3)
or
(4)
The last equation can be re-written as
(5)
which is a linear relation between
and . The slope is therefore
and the intercept is
zero.
3 Equipment needed :
Force sensor, Computer, Pasco interface, Stand, thread and bar, ruler, masses and mass ho

the derivative of the curve at
. This is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve
at that point (
. To calculate the acceleration from this curve we can find the speed
at two distinct moments and , by finding the slope of the tangents at those point

Simple Pendulum
Experiment (7)
1 Aim of the experiment
You study in this experiment the harmonic motion of simple pendulum.
2 Introduction
A simple pendulum consists of a mass (bob) and an inelastic massless string (see Fig.1). when
the bob is given a sma

Figure 6: Joule's experiment setup
James Prescott Joule46 did, in 1843, an experiment where he measured the mechanical equivalent of
heat constant . In his setup, see Fig. 1, a falling known mass generates heat, by friction, in a known
mass of water. The

(7)
(8)
where
and
are the torques due to the tension and frictions, respectively. Here
as was the case for speeds, the linear and angular acceleration are related:
.
Please note that here refers to the radius of the pulley and not that of the platter (see

Position on Yaxis (cm)
161.3
185.3
202.7
210.5
231.2
0
7.896996
13.62232
16.09335
23
3. Representing the Error bars:
We use the Y axis scale which has been defined so that (231.2 161.3)
corresponds to 23 cm. We
have then (we have already found the error b

Experimental General Physics for Engineers I
Laboratory Report PHYS 192 Fall 2011
Student Name:
Student ID
Student Name:
Student ID
Experiment title:
Free Fall
Date submitted:
Evaluation (For Instructor use only)
Date received:
Due date:
Presentation, qua

Measurement and Errors Analysis II
Pre-Experiment (2)
1 Aim of the experiment
The aim of this session is to introduce you to error and error propagation.
2 Introduction
The material needed for this lab has been explained in detail in the introductory chap

(7)
Or
(8)
To fix the sign in Eq. 8 we reason as follow: When the pendulum moves from
to
,
the angle is decreasing so that
is negative.
being positive, we have to chose the
negative sign:
(10)
The motion from
to
takes one quarter of the period , thus:
(11

2. In a pipe and under the same pressure, who runs faster: the liquid with high viscosity
coefficient or the one with a lower viscosity coefficient?
39

2. A series of measurements of a physical quantity gave us the following numbers (in some
unit):
17.47468 17.47392 17.47616 17.47499 17.47257
a. Calculate the best estimate of the physical quantity (i.e. calculate the mean value of
the series of measureme

5 How to estimate the error
We can estimate the error committed when using a Vernier caliper in the following way. We
notice first that the error comes in because we are unable to locate exactly the first graduation
on the Vernier scale that coincides wit

Conservation of Mechanical Energy
Experiment (5)
1 Aim of the experiment
You investigate in this experiment the conservation of mechanical energy.
2 Introduction
We deal in this experiment with two forms of energy: Potential and Kinetic energy. Consider
t

(6)
Similarly to Eq. 4, this last equation can be written as:
(7)
Where is the value of the speed at
the following equation:
. It can be shown22 that the position of the object is given by
(8)
We can, as we have repeatedly done before, represent Eqs. 5,7

Specific Heat Capacity of a Solid
Experiment (10)
1 Aim of the experiment
You measure in this experiment the specific heat of a metal.
2 Introduction
When we give the same amount of heat to different solids, liquids or gases their temperatures
change with

We then apply Newtons second to each object neglecting the mass of the string and the pulley
and choosing the downward direction as the positive direction.
(1)
(2)
We omitted for simplicity the vertical projection for the cart. Because the two objects are

4.
5.
6.
7.
Fit linearly your data and get the slope and the intercept.
Using the Excel function linest, calculate the errors on the slope and intercept.
Does your data represent the theory given by Eq. 4? Look at the fit quality variable .
Calculate the

7. Calculate the experimental values of , . This is the first method for measuring .
8. Calculate, and this is the second method, the theoretical values of ,
using Eq. 6
where is the radius of the platter.
9. How do the two values of compare?
10. What can

4 Experimental procedure
1. Measure the mass of calorimeter (i.e. water recipient) when it is empty.
2. Put some water in the calorimeter (the water should fully cover the resistor) and
measure the new mass. Deduce the mass of the water.
3. Connect the ci

We would like to calculate the slope , the intercept and the error on them using these
measurements and the formulae developed above. First, as suggested, let us calculate the
needed sums (as we see on the table, the number of measurement
is equal to 6).

is the proper angular frequency34, and
where
and
are constants determined by the
initial conditions of the object (i.e. its position and velocity at
). A such sinusoidal motion
is called a harmonic. The object thus will oscillate with a frequency:
(5)
and

(4)
Once we have measured, in this way, the specific heat capacity of a metal, we can use it to
make the calorimeter. We can then measure of any other substance (solid or liquid especially)
by using the following equation (deduced from step 5 above):
(5)

The free body diagram in this figure shows that three forces act on the ball:
1. The gravity force
given by
exerted by the earth on the ball. Near the earth surface this is
or
radius of the sphere, respectively, and
where
and are
the density and
the gravi

a. Error bars: Since
is plotted on the Y axis, the error bars represent the error on
been already calculated above and found to be
dx/t_m (cm/s)
b. Excel graph:
. This has
.
versus
230
y = 466.55x + 106.49
R = 0.9633
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
0.122
0.14

and thus, using Eq.4, we get
Similarly one can show that if
then
9. One can continue in a similar way with other kind of functions.
7 Significant Figures
Significant figures in a given number are the figures that we know reliably, i.e. we are not
(totally

Figure 7: first three resonances for an open tube. the maximum pressure amplitudes across the tube are shown.
Note that because the tube ends are in direct contact with the ambient air, the pressures at
those location are equal to the atmospheric pressure

Experiment 5: Hookes Law Experiment
PHYS 192- L09
Dr. Zahoor Ahmed
2016/10/31
Objective:
Understanding Hooke's law and spring constant and we will conduct an
experiment to determine how the extension of a spring varies with the
stretching force.
Introduct

Experiment 6: Simple Pendulum Experiment
PHYS 192- L0
Dr. Zahoor Ahmed
2016/11/12
Objective:
understand the relation between the length of the pendulum,
time period and the acceleration due to gravity at a place, plus To
plot a L-T2 graph using a simple

Experiment 6: Viscosity of Liquids Experiment
PHYS 192- L09
Amgad Abdalgadir
201306436
Dr. Zahoor Ahmed
2016/11/20
Objective:
In this experiment you measure the viscosity coefficient of an
engine oil.
Introduction:
The viscosity coefficient quantifies th

College of Arts and Sciences
Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics
Physics Program
Dr. H. Merabet
List of End-Chapter Problems for PHYS 191
The following table gives the assigned problems for each covered chapter of University Physics with
Mo