Causal Cognition 2:
University College London
Causal models in reasoning
are causal models used?
Inductive and counterfactual reasoning
Evidential and legal reasoning
Prospective analysis is the forecasting of the
future financial information.
Managers - forecasts for planning & to provide
Analysts - forecasts to help communicate their
views of the firms pr
Tutor: Zenab Ali
What is International Relations?
Sub-discipline of Politics i.e. International or World Politics (political interaction
between states, institutions and non-governmental actors)
New discipline (est
HOW DOES A MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL
DEFINE A PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER?
Mental health professionals define a
psychological disorder as condition that
either seriously impairs a persons ability to
function in life or crea
WHO EXPERIENCE THE MOST
People living in poverty tend to experience greater stress than other
people, primarily the environment in which they live are generally
In addition they have fewer resources to help the
HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS DEFINE
Ever since the discipline of Psychology
began, psychologists have been attempting
to define those characteristic thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors that persist over time
and that distinguish
LECTURE : 4
Biological Basis of Behaviour
The Nervous System
Divisions of the Nervous system
NEURONS: PRIMARY UNITS OF
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Neurons range in length from less than a
millimetre to more than a meter in length. Yet all
Motivation and Emotion
WHAT KINDS OF CAREERS OR ACTIVITIES APPEAL
TO PEOPLE WITH A STRONG NEED FOR POWER
The Power motive is the need to win recognition
or to influence or control individuals or groups.
Those who score high in the power motive
Cognition (contd.) Aptitude and Intelligence
WHAT QUESTIONS ARE ASKED BY
PSYCHOLOGISTS WHO STUDY INTELLIGENCE?
Psychologists who study intelligence ask:
Q. what Intelligence entails?
Q. how it can be measured.
They also wonder about the relati
Motivation and Emotions
HOW CAN YOU USE INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC
MOTIVATION TO HELP YOU ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS
There are many ways of viewing human
The idea that our motivations are largely
based on instincts was popular in t
thinking and Decision Making
THREE MOST IMPORTANT BUILDING
BLOCKS OF THOUGHT
Cognition: The process whereby we acquire
and use knowledge.
The three most important building blocks of
THE SENSORY REGISTERS
Many Psychologists view memory as a series of
steps in which we encode, store and retrieve
information, much like a computer does.
This is called the information processing
model of memory.
The first step in the mo
Shaping and Operant Conditioning
positive and negative
Types of Learning
Definition: Learning in which the consequences of behavior
lead to changes in the probability of its o
Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through
experience that is through interactions with the environment.
Not all changes in behavior are the result of learning. The ter
States of Consciousness (contd.)
Abuse and Dependence
A class of drugs that alter conscious
These drugs exert their effects by influencing
specific neurotransmitters in the brain or by
Sensation and Perception (Contd.)
The ear is divided into main three divisions: the outer ear
(Eardrum), middle ear(Hammer, Anvil and Stirrup) and inner
States of Consciousness
stages, need, sleep deprivation, sleep
STAGES OF SLEEP
Several states of conscious awareness are
part of the sleep process. As someone falls
asleep they pass from waking consciousness
into a semiwa
Sensation and Perception
SENSATION: RECEIVING MESSAGES
ABOUT THE WORLD
We are aware of the outside world and the internal
world of our own bodies only because we have a
number of sense organs able to receive messages.
These organs enable us to
Schools of Thought
HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Wilhelm Wundt established the first
laboratory in Leipzig Germany in 1879.
Some historians believe that William James
deserves the credit for opening up the
Areas of Psychology
Pure and Applied Psychology
Applications of Psychology
Discussion: Is Psychology a Science?
AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY
CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY CAN BE ROUGHLY BROKEN
DOWN INTO TWO GROUPS, PURE OR BASIC AND
Pure or Basic
Fall Semester 2014
Teaching would include lectures, discussions, presentations,
quizzes, class and home assignments.
A special focus on psychological and behavioral probl
Assignment 5: Just-in-Time Systems
Bryant Electronics produces short runs of battery-powered pocket lanterns. You have been asked to
reduce inventory by introducing a kanban system. After several hours of analysis you have
developed the followi
Assignment 5: Supply-Chain Management
Phil Carter, President of Carter Computer Components, Corp. has the option of shipping
computer transformers from its Singapore plant via container ship or airfreight. The
typical shipment has a value of $75
Assignment: Project Management
The following represent activities in a major construction project. Draw the network to
represent this project.
Given the following Time C