Organizational Theory, Design, and Change, 7e (Jones)
Chapter 9 Organizational Design, Competences, and Technology
32) The interactions of the members of a surgical operating team, the cooperative efforts of
scientists in a research and development labora
Chapter 15 - Index Numbers
Multiple Choice Questions
41. If the average age was $7.67 per hour in 1998 and $14.90 per hour last month, what is the
index of hourly wages for last month based on the 1998 information?
A. 100.0
B. 186.9
C. 151.5
D. 194.3
42.
Chapter 11 - Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis
Chapter 11
Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis
Multiple Choice Questions
16. If the decision is to reject the null hypothesis of no difference between two population
proportions at the 5% level of significance, what
Random variables and probability distributions
1
Random variables are a key concept for statistical inference
We know that in order to use results from a sample to infer about a larger population, we must avoid bias and chose a sample at random. If our sa
Probability
1
Todays plan
Probability Notations Laws of probability
2
Set Notation
Sample space All possible outcomes of an experiment Example: You are playing a roulette with 100 numbers
Set S consists of each of the 100 possible outcomes labeled 1,2, 10
Tests of Hypotheses about the mean - continued
1
Reminder
Two types of hypotheses:
0
H - the null hypothesis (e.g. =24)
1
X H - thealternative hypothesis (e.g. 24 23.4 >24) Z= e.g. : Z = = 2 3 n 100 Test statistic:
P-value: probability of obtaining values
Continuous random variables
f(x)
x
1
Continuous random variables
A discrete random variable has values that are
isolated numbers, e.g.:
Number of boys in a family number of heads in 10 flips of a coin
A continuous random variable has values over an entire
Random variables and probability distributions
1
Random variables are a key concept for statistical inference
We know that in order to use results from a sample to infer about a larger population, we must avoid bias and chose a sample at random. If our sa
Sets: Reminder
Set S sample space - includes all possible outcomes A S (subset of S) S
A= complement of A
A
A
Intersection Union
AB
(A and B) A (A or B)
A B
S B
1
AB
Probability Rules
1. Any probability is a number between 0 and 1 For any event A, 0 p(A
Tests of Hypotheses
1
Statistical hypothesis
Statistical hypothesisStatement about a feature of the population (e.g. the mean)
Examples: - Mean temperature of healthy adults
is 98.6F (37c). - A certain medication contains a mean of 245 ppm of a particular
Confidence intervals for the mean - continued
Population Mean - Sample mean: X
1
Reminder
Point estimator for : X Limitations of point estimators Interval estimation for
2
A (1-)% confidence interval for
A (1-)% confidence interval for is:
/2% Z
(1-)%
/
Inference Confidence intervals for the mean
Population Mean - Sample mean: X
1
Point estimate for : X
Example: Unknown: mean height of female students - . Estimate: We take a random sample of 225 female students and measure the mean height, X , of the fem
Distribution of the sample mean and the central limit theorem
Means of different random variables
The mean, X, of 2 rolls of a die takes on various values it is a random variable. The mean waiting time between arrivals of customers to a restaurant during
Review
Probability Random variables Binomial distribution
1
1.
Event A occurs with probability 0.2. Event B occurs with probability 0.8. If A and B are disjoint (mutually exclusive) then (i) p(A and B)=0.16 (ii) p(A or B)=1 (iii) p(A and B)=1 (iv) p(A or
The normal approximation to the Binomial variable
B(n,p)
N(=np, =np(1-p)
1
M&M example
In a large bowl of M&Ms, the proportion of blues is 1/6 (or .17). X- the number of blue M&Ms in a sample of size 6 X~B(6, 1/6) Draw the probability histogram of X and c