(a) Schematic representation (b) T-s diagram
Processes: 1-2: Isentropic compression from state 1 (wet vapour) to state 2 (saturated vapour)
2-3: Heat rejection (QH) in the condenser
3-4: Isentropic expansion from state 3 (saturated liquid)
4-1: Heat absor
Principle of increase of entropy
Let a system change from state 1 to state 2 by a reversible process A and return to state 1
by another reversible process B. Then 1A2B1 is a reversible cycle. Therefore, the
Clausius inequality gives:
If the system is rest
The differential expressions for the thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell relations can
be remembered conveniently in terms of a thermodynamic Mnemonic diagram.
The diagram consists of a square with two diagonal arrows pointing upwards and the
To find out the dependence of pressure on equilibrium temperature when two phases
Along a phase transition line, the pressure and temperature are not independent of each
other, since the system is univariant, that is, only one intensive parameter
Basic idea: Increase the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working
fluid in the boiler, or decrease the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the
working fluid in the condenser.
1. Lowering the condenser Pressure:Lowerin
The second law of thermodynamics tells us that it is not possible to convert all the heat
absorbed by a system into work.
Suppose a certain quantity of energy Q as heat can be received from a body at
The maximum work can be obtained by oper