01. The Rise of the Wave Theory of Light.
Buchwald (1989), Intro.
Emission theory: Light consists of particles interacting via forces.
Wave theory: Light consists of waves (in the "ether").
wave front = locus of points at which the
Hunt (1991), Chaps 7 & 8
14. The Maxwellian Heyday.
A. Hertz's Waves.
1887. Hertz generates and detects EM waves.
EM waves produced
by spark here.
. and spark
in gap here.
. cause current
in loop there.
13. Maxwell's Equations and EM Waves.
Hunt (1991), Chaps 5 & 6
A. The Energy of an Electromagnetic Field.
1880s revision of Maxwell: Guiding principle = concept of energy flow.
Evidence for energy flow through seemingly empty space:
12. Telegraphy and Ether Models.
Hunt (1991), Chaps 3 & 4.
A. Growth and Development of Telegraphy
1851. First submarine cable under English Channel
from Dover to Calais.
1858. First attempt to lay Atlantic cable fails after
just a month of service.
11. The Maxwellians: Fitzgerald and Lodge.
Hunt (1991), Chaps 1 & 2.
George Francis FitzGerald
1879-1894: ". transformed the rich but confusing raw material of the
Darrigol (2000), Chap 4.
1856. "On Faraday's Lines of Force".
Intended to obtain mathematical expression of Faraday's field concept.
Distinction between "intensity" (force) and "quantity" (flux).
Two circuit laws: H = j and E = -A/t.
09. Fields and Lines of Force.
Darrigol (2000), Chap 3.
A. Faraday and Dielectrics
1835. Insulator in presence of electric source is in a 'state of tension' (essence
In presence of electric source, an insulator becomes polarized: positi
08. Ampre and Faraday
Darrigol (2000), Chap 1.
(1) Electrostatics (frictional electricity)
1780s. Coulomb's description:
Two electric fluids: positive and negative.
Inverse square law:
It follows the
07. Fresnel's Unification.
Buchwald (1989), Chaps 10-12.
A. The Link between Polarization and Double Refraction
Optic axis = direction in a crystal in which a ray does not doubly refract.
Uniaxial crystal = crystal that contains one optic axis.
06. The Wave Theory: Further Developments.
Buchwald (1989), Chaps 7-9.
A. Transverse and Longitudinal Waves (Contemporary View)
Transverse wave: displacements of medium are perpendicular to direction of travel.
Longitudinal wave: displacements of medium
05. Huygens's Principle and the Wave Theory.
Buchwald (1989), Chap 6.
A. Fresnel Diffraction: Contemporary View
r' = distance from source S to point O on
wavefront at aperture.
r = distance from O to P.
Direction from points O to points P is not
04. Fresnel's Ray Theory of Diffraction.
Buchwald (1989), Chap 5.
A. Interference: Contemporary View
Coherant sources = Sources that produce waves with same amplitude and
wavelength, and that have a constant phase relation.
(a) Two coherant sources S1, S
03. Arago and Biot.
Buchwald (1989), Chaps 3, 4.
1. Arago and Ring Polarization.
Air film between a convex
lens and a plane surface.
The thickness of the film t
increases as we move out
from the center, giving a
series of alternating dark
02. Optical Rays, Malus, and Polarization.
Buchwald (1989), Chaps 1, 2.
1. The Optical Ray.
Pre-17th Century: The ray as the physical foundation of light.
Euclid: "visual rays" proceed from the eye to object of sight.
1690. Huygens's Traite de la lumie
15. The Advent of the Electron.
Hunt (1991), Chap 9
1889. Lodge assesses Maxwell's theory.
An excellent account of purely field phenomena, but says little about the
interaction between fields and matter.
A theory of one medium:
".it drew no real distin