01. Inventing Temperature: Chap 1.
1. Fixed Points.
1693. State of the art in thermometers:
"I cannot learn that any of them.were ever made
or adjusted, so as it might be concluded, what
the Degrees or Divisions.did mean; neither were
14. Fluctuation Phenomena and Maxwell's Demon
Early 20th century thermal fluctuation phenomena:
Density fluctuations in fluids near critical states.
Completely random processes!
Idea: Exploit such phenomena to cons
13. The Kinetic Theory, Part 2: Objections.
1. Loschmidt's Umkehreinwand (Reversibility Objection) (1876).
"ber die Zustand des Wrmegleichgewichtes eines Systems von Krpern mit Rucksicht auf die Schwerkraft."
H-Theorem implies that a gas
12. The Kinetic Theory, Part 1.
1. Early Kinetic Theory
18th-19th Century Caloric theories of heat:
Pressure of a gas due to repulsive force of caloric particles.
Temperature is a measure of amount of caloric present.
1830s-50s. Wave theory of heat:
15. The Science of Energy - Chaps 12-14.
1. Maxwell's Demon
Maxwell's critique of scientific materialism: It entails dynamical
reversibility which is not observed in nature.
"Everything in the physical world is progres
14. The Science of Energy: Chaps 8-11
Macquorn Rankine: 1855 appointed Glasgow chair of Civil
Engineering and Mechanics.
Practical applications of new theory of thermodynamics:
air-engines: larger "fall" of heat and no exploding steam
13. The Science of Energy: Chaps 5-7
1. William Thomson's Dilemma
How to reconcile Joule with Carnot.
Carnot: Work produced by heat engines requires the fall of
heat from hot place to cold place.
Joule: Heat can be converted i
12. The Science of Energy: Chaps 1-4
Cultural history of thermodynamics ("science of energy"): 1840's-1880's.
Main characters: North British (Scottish) natural philosophers:
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
James Prescott Joule
07. The Wave Theory of Heat
Wave Theory: Heat is the vibrations of an ethereal fluid that fills all space
and which transmits vibrational motion from one atom to another.
Two differences from post-1850 conceptions (kinetic theory):
06. Lavoisier and the Caloric Theory of Heat
1. Air as a vapor.
Recall: 4 elements: earth, air, fire, water.
Air, fire, water can exist in free or fixed forms. What is the nature of air?
Lavoisier's manuscripts of 1766, 1772, 1773
05. Inventing Temperature: Chaps 5, 6.
1. Foundationalism vs. Coherentism.
Basic Problem: "Empirical science requires observations based on theories,
but empiricist philosophy demands that those theories should be justified by
observations. And it is in
04. Inventing Temperature: Chap 4.
1. Theories of Heat Prior to Thermodynamics.
Cold and Hot as contrary qualities (forms).
Contrary forms = forms that cannot both be present in the same thing.
Forms change via transitions between contraries.
03. Inventing Temperature: Chap 3.
1. Extending the Temperature Scale Beyond the Freezing Point of Mercury.
1733-43. Johann Gmelin in Siberia.
"The air seemed as if it were frozen, with the appearance of a fog, which did
not suffer the smoke to ascend as
02. Inventing Temperature: Chap 2.
1. The Problem of Nomic Measurement.
Thermometers filled with different
liquids did not agree.
(a) Each type of thermometer defines a
separate standard of temperature
15. Information and Maxwell's Demon.
I. Dilemma for Information-Theoretic Exorcisms.
(S) (Sound). The combination of object system and demon forms a canonical
(P) (Profound). The combination of object system and demon does no