P. Freire (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Chapter 1
freedom = essential aspect of humanity
oppression involves "dehumanization": constraining freedom
affects both oppressed and oppressor
Characteristics of Oppressed
(1) Oppressed inter
G. A. Cohen "The Structure of Proletarian Unfreedom"
Marxist Claim (MC): Under capitalism, workers are forced to sell their labor.
What does this mean?
(1) To be forced to do something = having no reasonable or acceptable alternative
(2) To be forced to d
Robert Nozick Equality, Envy, Exploitation, etc.
(Chap 8 of Anarchy, State and Utopia 1974)
How large should government be?
Anarchist: No government:
Nozick: Minimal State:
Emma Goldman (1869-1940) Anarchism: What It Really Stands For (Anarchism and Other Essays, 1910)
Born in Lithuania
Immigrates to US (Rochester, NY; then NYC)
Workers Rights Advocate
Haymarket Square (Chicago) Protest against 8 hr work day.
Alfredo Rocco (1875-1935) The Political Doctrine of Fascism (1925)
Minister of Justice under Mussolini.
Mussolini founded the Fascist party in Italy in 1919; rose to power in 1922; assassinated in 1945
fasciare - to bind or to envelop
I. Roccos Critiqu
Marx Private Property and Communism
I. Private Property
Private property = active relationship between labor and
Contrast with the relation between lack of property
and property, which is passive.
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, 2nd Part: Individual Liberty and Society
3rd Part: Applications
Question: To what extent is society justified in regulating the behavior of individuals?
Answer: Individuals in society must:
(1) Conduct their behavior so as no
John Stuart Mill
On Liberty (1859)
1st Part - Of Individuality
2nd Part - Individual Liberty and Society
3rd Part - Applications
Mill on freedom of speech and opinion
Necessary to mental well-being of mankind for three reasons:
Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) Letter from the Birmingham Jail (April 16, 1963)
Born in Atlanta.
1954/55 Pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Montgomery, Alabama. Ph.D. Boston University.
Becomes involved in civil rights movement through the
Franz Fanon (1925-1961) Concerning Violence (Chap. 1 of The Wretched of the Earth, 1963)
Only way to do away with colonialism
and its effects is through violence
Born on island of Martinique - French territory (French Antilles, together with Guadelou
Betty Friedan (b. 1921)
The Happy Housewife Heroine
Chapter 2 of The Feminine Mystique (1963)
Hobbes and Rousseau - Olden Times - 17th/18th centuries
Marx - mid-19th century (industrial revolution)
Veblen - American society at the turn of the 19th century
Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929)
Born in farm country of Minnesota (Norwegian settlers)
Norwegian farmers vs. English townspeople
Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
Takes the appearance of an anthropological study of
PL 2044 - Social Philosophy
Topics for Paper #1. Due Thursday, March 6.
Choose one of the following topics and respond to it in a paper of no less than 4 pages and no more than
6 pages. Your paper should be typed, 10- or 12-point, double-spaced and spell-