Termed cross product
A B AB sin C
is perpendicular to both A and B.
Vector productBasic properties
A B B A
A B C A B A C
A A 0
A B C A C B C
A kB kA B
i i j j k k 0
i j k
j k i
k i j
A B Ay Bz Az B y i Az Bx
Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of
The first law is a statement of Conservation of Energy. It states
that a change in internal energy in a system can occur as a
result of energy transfer by heat, by work, or by both.
The Kinetic Theory of Gases
Kinetic molecular model of an ideal gas
Number of collision with A during dt,
A v x dt
A v x dt 2m vx
F 1 dPx Nmv x2 Nmv 2
A A dt
2 1 2 2
pV Nmv N mv K tr
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Quantity of heat
Heat is the energy transferred between systems of different
Calorie: the amount of heat to raise the temperature of 1
gram of water from 14.5C to 15.5C.
1 cal =4.186J
Introduction to Sound Waves
Waves can move through three-dimensional bulk media.
Sound waves are longitudinal waves.
The mathematical description of sinusoidal sound waves is very
similar to sinusoidal waves on a string.
Newtons Law of Gravitation
G 6.67 10 11 Nm 2 /kg 2
Gravitation is a field force that is regardless of the medium.
Universal gravitational constant G is first determined by
Cavendish torsion balance.
A modern m
Periodic motion is the repeating
motion of an object in which it
continues to return to a given
position after a fixed time interval.
The repetitive movements are called
Types of mechanical waves ( )
Mechanical wave: disturbance that travels through a medium.
Energy is transferred; matter is not.
Transverse wave ( ): particles oscillate perpendicular to the
direction of propagation
Some important concepts
Part of the universe is called a system ( ). The rest outside that
system is surroundings. The system and the surroundings are
separated by a boundary or wall and they may, in general,
exchange energy and mat
Superposition and Standing Waves
Waves vs. Particles
Waves are very different from particles.
Particles have zero
Waves have a characteristic size
Multiple particles must
exist at different
Multiple waves can
AP10001 Introduction to Physics (2013 2014, S1)
Assignment 2 (Ch4) (SOLUTION)
An electron is a subatomic particle (m = 9.11 x 10-31 kg) that is subject to electric forces. An electron
moving in the +x direction accelerates from an initial velocit
12. Crafting the Quantum: Chaps 1-3.
History of development of theoretical physics: 1890-1926.
Cast of Characters:
What is the content of th
11. Feminist Approaches to Science
General Claim: Science has been part of a structure that has perpetuated
inequalities between men and women.
NYU-Poly Fall 2011 enrollment data.
10. Actor-Network-Theory (ANT)
Technoscience = view of science and technology as involving the
same types of processes.
Example. ANT Claim: No distinction in kind between "discovery"
the phases of
09. Sociology of Science
1. Mertonian Sociology of Science
(Robert Merton 1940's)
Function of science is to produce knowledge.
Accomplishes this by enforcing institutional norms.
Norms = The rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate
08. Kuhn: Revolutions
1. The Nature and Necessity of Revolutions
(A) Are there crises and revolutions in the history of science?
"Revolutions in science only need seem revolutionary to those whose paradigms are
affected by them." (Kuhn, pg. 93.)
07. Kuhn: Anomalies and Crises
1. Anomaly and the Emergence of Scientific Discoveries
"Discovery" of Oxygen
Phlogiston paradigm (~1600's):
Phlogiston = substance contained in flammable
bodies and released when they're burned.
Ex. Burning wood produces
05. Kuhn: Paradigms and Immature Science
1. Broad sense: a package of ideas and methods which make up a view of the
world and a way of doing science.
2. Narrow sense: a collection of examples or exemplars that serve as models,
15. Galileo and Aristotle on Motion.
I. Aristotle's Theory of Motion
Two basic principles:
I. No motion without a mover in contact with moving body.
II. Distinction between:
(a) Natural motion: mover is internal to moving body
(b) Forced motion: mover is
13. Two World Views.
I. The Ptolemaic System
Claudius Ptolemy (~85 - ~165 A.D.)
The Almagest (127-141 A.D.). "The Great Compilation".
Account meant to save the
phenomena (no explicit
Major constraint: Aristotelian
12. Medicine and Magic in Elizabethan London. IV.
IV. Forman: Alchemy, Magic, and Medicine
1. The Medical Uses of Antimony
"antimony" = ore of antimony (stibnite).
"regulus" = metal extracted from ore (metalline antimony).
"star of regulus"/"quicks
11. Medicine and Magic in Elizabethan London. III.
III. Forman: The Casebooks
Motivations for belief in astrology in early modern England.
psychological: The need for information and advice which no other agency
social and therapeuti
10. Medicine and Magic in Elizabethan London. II.
II. Plague and the College of Physicians of London
1518. Group of physicians obtain charter to set up "a College in perpetuity of
learned and wise men who make any practice of medicine in our City of
09. Medicine and Magic in Elizabethan London. I.
Writings of Simon Forman (1552-1611): astrologer,
medical practitioner in Elizabethan London.
Medical practice: Galenic vs Paracelsian medicine.
Social structures of authority: Forman vs
08. Galen and Paracelsus
Kearney, H. (1971) Science and Change
I. Three Traditions
1. The Organic Tradition
(a) Nature as living organism.
Characteristics: change, growth and decay,
final causation, substantial forms.
(b) God as rational first-mover.
07. Pico: Supernatural Magic and the Cabala
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)
Italian philosopher; younger contemporary of Ficino.
900 claims on a variety of subjects: Aristotle, Plato, Hermes
Trismegistis (10), magic (26), Ca
06. Ficino: Natural Magic and Cosmic Medicine
I. Framework for Medieval (Pre-Renaissance) Magic
Mystical knowledge of religious/spiritual world-order.
Used for practical purposes by magus.
Optimistic gnosticism sympathetic magic (dra
05. The Hermetic Corpus and Magic
I. Hermes Trismegistus
(1) Appearance of Hermetic writings (1st-2nd cent. A.D.).
Greek texts thought to be translations of ancient Egyptian texts written by
Egyptian priest, philosopher, and law
03. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
I. Matter and Form
All being is in the world.
Forms exist in sensible objects; not in a separate Platonic realm.
Doctrine of Hylomorphism
A sensible object consists of both matter and form.
Form determines properties o
02. Plato's Cosmology
World of Forms
ORDER & REASON
(World of sensible objects)
Creation of the Cosmos
Two descriptions in Timaeus: Top