2. Who was chaitanya?
A. He was an important Bhakti Saint from Bengal.
3. What do you understand from the term Khalsa?
A. A Sikh having a direct link with the Guru.
4. Name of two important works of Ziaudin Barani?
A. Fatwa-i-Jahandari and Tarikh-i-Firoz
1. Explain the system of exchange during the early Vedic period ?
A. Apart from cattle rearing and small scale cultivation, early Aryan people were engaged in many
other economic activities. Hunting, carpentry, tanning, weaving, chariot -
4. Describe the geographical distribution of Neolithic sites ?
Neolithic sites were spread over almost all the regions of Indian Subcontinent.
In the North Western region Mehrgarh is a classic site in the Kanchi plains of Baluchistan.
The excavations at M
From Janapadas to Empire
We know that agriculture activity was started in the later vedic period on the Ganga basin. Now,
in this chapter we will discuss how the agrucultural activity increased and how the settled life led to the
rise of si
attained the true knowledge i.e. enlightenment at Budhgaya and delivered his first sermon at
Saranath which is knows as dharma - chakra - pravartana. He also established his samgha
there. He died in 486 BC at the a age of 80 at Kusinager in Eastern U.P.
4. Who is the author of Indica ?
5. What was the function of the Dhamma mahamathras ?
A. To take care of Brahmans and all other kinds of Monks.
6. Jataka : Collection of Budhist Stories about the previous births of the Budha.
7. Samaj : Rel
The Vedic Age (1500 BC - 600 BC)
After the downfall of Harappan Civilization we found Archeological evidence of the arrival of
new people known as Aryans or Indo - Aryans on the out skirts of the Harappan region. In this lesson,
we shall st
Understanding Indian History
History as field of study, is of utmost importance among social sciences. It lies at the base of all
concepts, theories and inferences found in different social sciences and hence a study of historical
2. Who was Charaka ?
A. Charaka was court poet of Kushan king Kaniska. He was considered as father of Ayurveda,
who wrote a book on medicine called 'charaka Samhita'.
3. Who was Heliodorus ?
A. Heliodorus was an envoy of the Greek ruler Antial kidas, king
independent nation - states.
After studying this lesson, you will be able to
learn about some national freedom movements;
Analyse global political forces affecting the decolonisation process;
Discuss relationships of dependency and inequality i
Explain how and why did civilization decline,
Identify the chalcolithic Communities outside the Harappan Zone.
Explain economic condition and settlement pattern of these chalcolithic Communities.
1. Describe the important features of Hara
Establishment of British Rule in India till
Commercial contracts between India and Europe were very remote. In the medieval period, the
Europeans carried on trade with India through the land and sea routes, but the capture of Constant
But, above said view was severely criticised by recent generation of Indian historians, who
have emphasized the continuities between the earlier Moghal and later British states and the
constellation of small successor states that emerged with the ebbing
Popular Resistance to Company Rule
During the initial years of company rule in India there were many a number of up risings and
rebellions. As we have learnt, over a period of 100 years, the company adopted various measures to
1. Describe the causes for the downfall of Moghal empire after the death of Aurangazeb?
A. The Moghal empire founded by Babur, built and consolidated by Akbar reached Zenith of its
glory during the early years of Aurangazeb. The unity and
1. British imperialism : British had the credit of uniting political India since a long time which
India and Indians did not enjoy. Even the Moghuls did not achive it permanently. But with the
advent of British imperialism, India became one and the Indian
The Army which was the chief instrument of rebellion was thoroughly reorganised.
The mutiny gave an irreperable setback to the Muslim renaissance at Delhi.
The revolt created mutual distrust and rivalry between the English and the Indians.
Short Essay Qu
4. Vedas : They are the main sources for both Aryan civilization as well as Ancient India. They are
four in number. Rigveda, Yajurveda, Atharvanaveda and samaveda. Of the vedas Rigveda was
first one. They are the symbols of sacredness. They are the standa
1. Assess the influence of the geographical features of India on its history ?
A. The sub continent of India has three distinct features, a long east - to - west stretch of Himalayan
Mountains, the Indo - Gangetic plains and the Deccan pen
It advocated universal brotherhood as honesty.
Besides the religions activities, it also took harity, female education, technical and general
education as it aims.
The other great leaders of the Samaj were Devendranath Tagore and Keshav Chandra Sen.
1. Give an account of the Gupta administration ?
The Gupta dynasty was established by Shrigupta and came to high light by chandragupta 1,
Samudra gupta and started decline after chandragupta II in AD 515.
Inscriptions of Gupta emperors,
Kanishka ascended the throne in 78 AD and stated the era called 'Saka era'.
Kanishka conquered many regions and extended his empire from central Asia to North India
and included Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti in Uttar Pradesh.
He integrated Central Asi
explain effects of Great Depression on USA, USSR and Europe;
Correlate aggression and appeasment and
explain the course of War.
1. Give an account of provisions of the Treaty of Versailes ?
A. The first world was ended with the signing of
As a result larger number of people around the world came to produce things that they did not
themselves consume, while they consumed things produced else where by others.
Thus the in equalities which riped during the 20th century had the root in 19th cen
World War 1 and the Russian Revolution
The first World War of 1914 - 18, was one of the greatest disasters that ever before to the man
kind. It was not an unexpected tragedy because during 40 years preceding its outbreak, the developments
population in the war effected areas, the immense financial burden imposed upon victors exited
the minds of states man to think about the steps to be taken to prevent its repetetion. Thus the
League of Nations came in to exist in 1920.
The feague of Natio
After the war, a commission will be set up to demarcate Muslim majority areas. Thereafter
plebicite will be taken on the basis of adult franchise in these areas to decide the issue of
Before plebicite, every political party will be given the f
1. Which were the news services set up by the USA and USSR ?
A. Voice of America and Radio Moscow.
2. Which leader coined the famous term 'Iron Curtain' ?
A. Winston Churchill.
3. What does PRC stand for ?
A. People's Republic China
8. Immediate Causes : The murder of Archduke Feridnand a heir to the Austrian shrone at
sirajovo by a serbian youth was the immediate cause for the war. Asustria took the advantage of situation to crush serbia. Thus the war started in the Balkan peninsula
The cold war was very different from an open war where the enemies were well known
and the war is fought in the open. In the cold war, war was never declared and diplomatic
relations were maintained among the countries. The cold war did involve some milit