Jimmerian telegram : This was one of the event which was responsible for America to
enter into first world war. When America had been supporting allied countries against central
powers, Germany tried to brought Mexico into the war against
The cold war was very different from an open war where the enemies were well known
and the war is fought in the open. In the cold war, war was never declared and diplomatic
relations were maintained among the countries. The cold war did involve some milit
8. Immediate Causes : The murder of Archduke Feridnand a heir to the Austrian shrone at
sirajovo by a serbian youth was the immediate cause for the war. Asustria took the advantage of situation to crush serbia. Thus the war started in the Balkan peninsula
1. Which were the news services set up by the USA and USSR ?
A. Voice of America and Radio Moscow.
2. Which leader coined the famous term 'Iron Curtain' ?
A. Winston Churchill.
3. What does PRC stand for ?
A. People's Republic China
After the war, a commission will be set up to demarcate Muslim majority areas. Thereafter
plebicite will be taken on the basis of adult franchise in these areas to decide the issue of
Before plebicite, every political party will be given the f
population in the war effected areas, the immense financial burden imposed upon victors exited
the minds of states man to think about the steps to be taken to prevent its repetetion. Thus the
League of Nations came in to exist in 1920.
The feague of Natio
World War 1 and the Russian Revolution
The first World War of 1914 - 18, was one of the greatest disasters that ever before to the man
kind. It was not an unexpected tragedy because during 40 years preceding its outbreak, the developments
As a result larger number of people around the world came to produce things that they did not
themselves consume, while they consumed things produced else where by others.
Thus the in equalities which riped during the 20th century had the root in 19th cen
explain effects of Great Depression on USA, USSR and Europe;
Correlate aggression and appeasment and
explain the course of War.
1. Give an account of provisions of the Treaty of Versailes ?
A. The first world was ended with the signing of
The world in 1900 : The 19th Century Legacy
When we learn about the past through books, films, television or the stories told by older people,
we notice the differences and similarities between other times and our own. We are aware that ce
Mussolini's greater achievement was the reconciliation brought by him between the church
and and the state.
By the treaty of Lousanne made with Turkey he increased control over the Meditorrean and
Dodacanese and Redejh from Turkey.
He recovered Fiume fro
The third method was called zabt. In this method the assessment was done on the basis of
measurement. Based on yields the share of the state was decided.
The Moghal land revenue administration was organised at the Farghana level. Amin was the
head of sur
The word 'Mansab' denotes rank, dignity or office. The holder of a mansab was called 'Man'
'Sabdar'. His main duty was to render military or other services to the emperor whenever
Each Mansabdar had to maintain according to his ran
and establishment of national schools, colleges, adoption of swadeshi goods and the use of
private arbitration courts etc.
The movement evoked a great response throughout the country. When the movement reached
its zenith a voilent incident occured at 'cha
6. Dadni : a form of artisanal production where in an artisan was provided with necessary raw
material and advanced money by such merchants who trade in these commodities.
7. Tanka : Standard silver coin of Delhi sultanate.
8. Karwanis : Merchants who mov
Indian National Movement (1857-1947)
The history of our freedom movement is not a single homogeneous story. It has several diverse
factors that interline and influence each other and unfold into the narrative of a struggle of our people fo
He brought punjab, UP, Bengal, Bihar, under his control, but he was defeated by chalukya
ruler pulakesi II.
He died in AD 647.
His court poet Banadhatta's Harshacharita and chinesse traveller Hsuan Trang's Si-yu - ki are
major records for his regime.
The people in medieval India persued diverse range of economic activities to earn their livelyhood.
The sphere of their works varied from agricultural to artisanal production, trade and commerce and
associated commercial and financ
Administrative System and Institutions
A new ruling class emerged in India with the Delhi Sultanate introduced a new administrative
system and new institutions. But during Moghal rule some of these underwent changes and a few new
Pratihara dynasty was founded by Nagabatta in the region of Malwa in 8th century. The
famous king in this dynasty was Vatsaraja. He extended his empire and his policy of expansion brought him in conflict with Dharma pala, the pala king of Bengal and Biha
Kanishka ascended the throne in 78 AD and stated the era called 'Saka era'.
Kanishka conquered many regions and extended his empire from central Asia to North India
and included Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti in Uttar Pradesh.
He integrated Central Asi
1. Give an account of the Gupta administration ?
The Gupta dynasty was established by Shrigupta and came to high light by chandragupta 1,
Samudra gupta and started decline after chandragupta II in AD 515.
Inscriptions of Gupta emperors,
2. Who was Charaka ?
A. Charaka was court poet of Kushan king Kaniska. He was considered as father of Ayurveda,
who wrote a book on medicine called 'charaka Samhita'.
3. Who was Heliodorus ?
A. Heliodorus was an envoy of the Greek ruler Antial kidas, king
Understanding Indian History
History as field of study, is of utmost importance among social sciences. It lies at the base of all
concepts, theories and inferences found in different social sciences and hence a study of historical
The Vedic Age (1500 BC - 600 BC)
After the downfall of Harappan Civilization we found Archeological evidence of the arrival of
new people known as Aryans or Indo - Aryans on the out skirts of the Harappan region. In this lesson,
we shall st
4. Who is the author of Indica ?
5. What was the function of the Dhamma mahamathras ?
A. To take care of Brahmans and all other kinds of Monks.
6. Jataka : Collection of Budhist Stories about the previous births of the Budha.
7. Samaj : Rel
attained the true knowledge i.e. enlightenment at Budhgaya and delivered his first sermon at
Saranath which is knows as dharma - chakra - pravartana. He also established his samgha
there. He died in 486 BC at the a age of 80 at Kusinager in Eastern U.P.
From Janapadas to Empire
We know that agriculture activity was started in the later vedic period on the Ganga basin. Now,
in this chapter we will discuss how the agrucultural activity increased and how the settled life led to the
rise of si
4. Describe the geographical distribution of Neolithic sites ?
Neolithic sites were spread over almost all the regions of Indian Subcontinent.
In the North Western region Mehrgarh is a classic site in the Kanchi plains of Baluchistan.
The excavations at M
1. Explain the system of exchange during the early Vedic period ?
A. Apart from cattle rearing and small scale cultivation, early Aryan people were engaged in many
other economic activities. Hunting, carpentry, tanning, weaving, chariot -