Chapter 29 Continued.
There are two types of phyla of seedless vascular plants:
-Phylum Lycophyta includes club mosses spike mosses and quillworts
-Phylum Pterophyta includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their
-All of the above includ
Evolution of Mammalia
Early evolution of mammals
Fossil record shows that mammals evovled from a specic type of
synapsid called a therapsid about 225 mya (Late Triassic)
-First mammals were tiny, shrewlike, insect eating, tree dwelling cre
Continuing Chapter 33.Nematodes
lack specialized respiratory organs and exchange oxygen through their
Many nematodes are acive hunters,m preying on protists and other small
animals and many are parasites on animals (pinworms, hookworms)
Continuing chapter 33.
Lack heads and brains but still have a nervous system. do no exhibit
some echinoderms eat dead organic matter or are herbivores, some are
central nerve ring
express bilateral symmetry as larvae but then exhib
The fossil record shows macro changes over large time scales including:
The emergence of terrestrial vertebrates.
The origin of photosynthesis and the development of abundant oxygen
21% today in the atmosphere! start
Continue chapter 36.
Water vapor in the airspaces f a leaf diuses down its water potential
gradient and exits the leaf via stomata. Evaporation (transpiration) of
water through stoma creates a negative pressure
Continuing Chapter 34.
Vertebrates: chordates with a spinal column
-distinguished from non-vertebrates by
1. Vertebral column-Encloses and protects the dorsal nerve cord
2. Head-Distinct and well dierentiated possessing sensory organs
are descended from three families of the Late Paleozoic Mesozoic Era
Their moist skin has abundant capillaries for cutaneous breathing (plus
lungs and or gills at certain times during the life cycle or simultaneousl