SYNAPSES & GRADED POTENTIALS
o Explain how neurotransmitters (NTs) are released
into, received as a signal, and removed from
synapses. Discuss the relationship between AP
frequency and neurotransmitter release.
o Describe how muscle cells get ATP (free ATP, action
of creatine phosphate, anaerobic glycolysis,
oxidative phosphorylation, and the role of glycogen
SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLE
Describe the differences among smooth, skeletal and
cardiac muscle fiber anatomy and the difference in
their speed of contraction.
Discuss the two types of smooth muscle organization
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS
o Explain how the autonomic nervous system
maintains homeostasis using antagonistic, tonic
o Describe or diagram the organization of the
sympathetic and parasympathetic branches
o Describe the homeostatic functions of the kidneys.
o Discuss the physiology and blood supply of the
following structures: renal cortex, renal medulla,
cortical nephrons, juxtamedullary nephrons,
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
o Describe the function of the digestive system.
o Explain which parts of the digestive tra
o Review the substrates used to power muscle during
anaerobic and aerobic metabolism (including
phosphocreatine). Explain why an oxygen deficit
exists after exercise.
o Describe how hormones control metab
Chapter 23 ENDOCRINE CONTROL
OF GROWTH & METABOLISM
o Describe the hormones that regulate growth and the
nutrients needed for growth.
o Use your understanding of the feedback loops that
control the release of ACTH, thyroid hormones, an
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
o Describe the processes of sexual d
FLUID & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
o Describe how the body controls ECF volume and
concentration using thirst and vasopressin (AVP /
antidiuretic hormone ADH).
o Discuss the mechanisms necessary to produce
concentrated and dilute u
o Classify stimuli as somatic, visceral or special.
Classify receptor types by the sensory stimuli that
they detect and explain what causes these
receptors to fire how they send signals to the CNS.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
o Describe the functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
and how CSF is formed, flows, and is absorbed.
o Discuss the importance of the blood-brain barrier
and explain why the brain requires a high blood