Energy is one of two basic quantities (besides mass) that constitute this universe. Because of the
basic nature and generality involved with energy, it is difficult to propose an explicit definition of
energy, which is meaningful in all situations.
Horizontal circular motion in a rotor
Horizontal rotor holds an object against the wall of a rotating cylinder at a certain angular speed.
The object (which could be a person in a fun game arrangement) is held by friction between the
surfaces of the objec
Waves: Characteristics, Types, Energy
Consider a long taut horizontal string of great length. Suppose one end is in the hand of a person
and the other is fixed to an immobile object. Now suppose that the person moves her hand up
and down. The person cause
FORCES APPLIED AT AN ANGLE &
FORCES APPLIED AT AN ANGLE
When forces are applied at angles other than
90o, we need to resolve the force into its
Then, we find the net force in each direction,
write our force equations (Fn
Work, Energy, and Mechanical Advantage
Prepare for this week's quiz by reviewing last week's experiment, reading this week's experiment
and reading the sections in your textbook that cover work, energy, friction, and mechanical
5 Work Done by the Electric Field, and, the Electric Potential
When a charged particle moves from one position in an electric field to another position in that
same electric field, the electric field does work on the particle. The work don
The zeros that are placeholders are highlighted.
1 sig. fig.
1 sig. fig.
2 sig. figs.
4 sig. figs.
3 sig. figs.
3 sig. figs.
3.0920 x 10-8 5 sig. figs.
10: "0" on the right is a placeholder. The "1" is the
only significant f
1 Charge & Coulomb's Law
Charge is a property of matter. There are two kinds of charge, positive + and negative .1
An object can have positive charge, negative charge, or no charge at all. A particle which has
charge causes a force-per-cha
A Block Attached to the End of a Spring
Consider a block of mass m on a frictionless horizontal surface. The block is attached, by means
of an ideal massless horizontal spring having force constant k, to a wall. A person has pulled the
block out, directly
We have briefly defined linear momentum, while describing Newton's second law of motion. The
law defines force as the time rate of linear momentum of a particle. It directly provides a
measurable basis for the measurement of force in terms of mas
When you shine plane-wave visible light through a mask with two parallel slits cut into it, onto a screen,
under certain circumstances (which we shall discuss) you see, on the screen, an extended pattern of
bright and dark bands wher
28 Thin Lenses: Ray Tracing
A lens is a piece of transparent material whose surfaces have been shaped so that, when the lens is in
another transparent material (call it medium 0), light traveling in medium 0, upon passing through the
lens, is redirected t
Uniform Circular Motion
Consider an object moving along a circular path with constant or uniform speed.
When an object travels in a circle, the direction of its velocity changes. The speed remains
uniform, the velocity changes because its direc
Coordinate system is a system of measurement of distance and direction with respect to rigid
bodies. Structurally, it comprises of coordinates and a reference point, usually the origin of the
coordinate system. The coordinates primarily serve the
Distance and Displacement
When a particle changes its position, it is said to have undergone a certain distance and if it is
expressed with reference to a direction then this distance is known as displacement.
When a particle
Mass and the weight
The mass is a scalar. It has only the magnitude. The total mass is given by the mass of the total
atoms in our body. The SI unit for mass is kg. When a body is at rest, relative to a given frame of
reference, it is known as the rest ma
26 Geometric Optics, Reflection
We now turn to a branch of optics referred to as geometric optics and also referred to as ray
optics. It applies in cases where the dimensions of the objects (and apertures) with which the
light interacts are so large as to
Fluids: Pressure, Density, Archimedes Principle
One mistake you see in solutions to submerged-object static fluid problems, is the inclusion, in the free
body diagram for the problem, in addition to the buoyant force, of a pressure-times-area force typica
Application of force
We implicitly consider that forces are applied at a single point object. The forces that act on a
point object are concurrent by virtue of the fact that a point is dimensionless entity. This may
appear to be confusing as we have actua
Heat: Phase Changes
There is a tendency to believe that any time heat is flowing into ice, the ice is melting. NOT SO.
When heat is flowing into ice, the ice will be melting only if the ice is already at the melting
temperature. When heat is flowing into
Physics 210 Week 2 Multiple Choice Practice Problems
Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _ 1. A 40-C charge is positioned on the x axis at x = 4.0 cm. Where should a -60-C charge be placed to prod