Quick
Quick Look at Normalization
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Normalization
1NF
2NF
3NF
BCNF
Decomposition
Decomposition
Anomalies (Review)
Anomalies are inconsistencies in data that occur due to
unnecessary redundancy.
Update anomaly
Some copies of a data item are
Minimum Spanning Trees
1
Outline: MST
Minimum Spanning Tree
Minimum
Generic MST Algorithm
Generic
Kruskals Algorithm (Edge Based)
Kruskal
Prims Algorithm (Vertex Based)
Prim
2
Spanning Tree
A spanning tree of G is a subgraph which
spanning
of
is tree (acy
6.042/18.062J Mathematics for Computer Science
Tom Leighton and Ronitt Rubinfeld
October 26, 2006
Lecture Notes
Recurrences II
1
Asymptotic Notation and Induction
Weve seen that asymptotic notation is quite useful, particularly in connection with recurren
CSCE 310: Data Structures &
CSCE
Algorithms
Algorithms
Asymptotic Notations*
Dr. Ying Lu
[email protected]
January 21, 2009
http:/www.cse.unl.edu/~ylu/csce310
*slides refrred to
http:/www.aw-bc.com/info/levitin
http:/www.aw-bc.com/info/levitin
Design and An
CS 1901715: Algorithms
Module 8: NP Completeness
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Dynamic Programming
When applicable:
Optimal substructure: optimal solution to problem
consists of optimal solutions to subproblems
Overlapping subproblems: few subproblems in
total, ma
Greedy Algorithms Technique
Dr. M. Sakalli,
modified from Levitin and CLSR
modified
Greedy Technique
Greedy
a
a
The first key ingredient is the greedy-choice property: a
The first
greedy-choice
globally optimal solution can be arrived at by making a
local
Analysis of Algorithms
CS 477/677
Asymptotic Analysis
Instructor: George Bebis
(Chapter 3, Appendix A)
Analysis of Algorithms
An algorithm is a finite set of precise instructions
for performing a computation or for solving a
problem.
What is the goal of
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 2: Heapsort
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Sorting Revisited
Dr. Azzam Sleit
2
Heaps
A heap can be seen as a complete binary tree:
16
14
10
8
2
7
4
9
3
1
A complete binary tree has all leave nodes at the
same level and all internal node
Asymptotic Notation,
Asymptotic Notation,
Review of Functions &
Review of Functions &
Summations
Summations
Fall 2008
Asymptotic Complexity
Running time of an algorithm as a function of
input size n for large n.
Expressed using only the highest-order te
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 4 - Binary Search Trees
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Review: Binary Search Trees
Binary Search Trees (BSTs) are an important
data structure
Elements have:
key: an identifying field inducing a total ordering
left: pointer to a left c
CS 1901715: Algorithms
Module 9: B-Tree
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
B-Trees
Dr. Azzam Sleit
2
Motivation for B-Trees
So far we have assumed that we can store an
entire data structure in main memory
What if we have so much data that it wont fit?
We will have to use
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 1:
Introduction
Proof By Induction
Asymptotic notation
Divide and Conquer paradigm
Recurrences
Dr. Azzam Sleit
University of Jordan - Fall 2005
The Course
Purpose: a rigorous introduction to the design
and analysis of algorit
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 7: Graph Algorithms
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Graphs
A graph G = (V, E)
V = set of vertices
E = set of edges = subset of V V
Thus |E| = O(|V|2)
Dr. Azzam Sleit
2
Graphs Terminology
Dr. Azzam Sleit
3
Graphs Terminology
Dr. Azzam S
Ordered Dictionaries Binary Search Trees
<
2 1 6 9 4= 8
Keys are assumed to come from a total order. New operations:
closestKeyBefore(k) closestElemBefore(k) closestKeyAfter(k) closestElemAfter(k)
1 Binary Search Trees 2
>
Binary Search Trees
Binary Searc
D1: Matchings
D1: Matchings
Another D1 topic is matchings. A matching
is based on a bipartite graph.
The graphic in the top right corner is a bipartite
graph: a graph which has two sets of vertices
arranged to be opposite each other.
The vertices on the l
How to Write a
Critique
Advanced Topics in Databases
Guidelines for writing paper
critiques
Each critique should be no more than one
page long. Less than a page is OK.
The purpose of a critique is not to
summarize the paper;
rather you should choose on
Distributed DBMSs - Concepts & Design
Dr. Bassam Hammo
1
Concepts
Distributed Database
A logically interrelated collection of
shared data (and a description of this
data), physically distributed over a
computer network.
Distributed DBMS
Software
system
th
Greedy Algorithms Technique
Dr. M. Sakalli,
modified from Levitin and CLSR
modified
Greedy Technique
Greedy
a
a
The first key ingredient is the greedy-choice property: a
The first
greedy-choice
globally optimal solution can be arrived at by making a
local
Functional
Functional Dependencies &
Normalization
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Redundancy and Normalisation
Redundant Data
Can be determined from other data in the database
Leads to various problems
INSERT anomalies
UPDATE anomalies
DELETE anomalies
Redundancy and N
Functional Dependencies- Examples
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Exercise #1: FDs From DB Instances
1.
2.
3.
Below is an instance of R(A1,A2,A3,A4). Choose the FD
which may hold on R
A4 A1
A2A3 A4
A2A3 A1
Solution #1: FDs From DB Instances
1. A4 A1 ?
Incorrect: The 1st
Computing
Computing Canonical Cover
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Canonical Cover
A canonical cover for F is a set of dependencies Fc such that
F logically implies all dependencies in Fc, and
Fc logically implies all dependencies in F, and
No functional dependency in
Decomposition,
Decomposition, 3NF, BCNF
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Decomposition of a Relation Schema
If a relation is not in a desired normal form, it can be
decomposed into multiple relations that each are in that normal
form.
Suppose that relation R contains att
Database
Searchin
g
Load &
Scalability
Testing
Data
Indexin
g
Database
Query
Processing
Data
Modelin
g
Database
Application
s
Data
Visualizatio
n
Multimedi
a
Databases
User
Interfaces &
Visualizatio
n
Computer
Vision
Algorith
ms
Top-K
Queries
Functional
T
Transaction Concept
A transaction is a unit of execution
Database Recovery
Either committed or aborted.
After a transaction, the db must be consistent.
Consistent No violation of any constraint.
For example, if a transaction is supposed to raise the s
Transactions & Concurrency
Control
Bassam Hammo
Transactions
A transaction is an action, or a series of actions, carried out by a
single user or an application program, which reads or updates
the contents of a database.
1
Transactions
A transaction is a
An Approach to Qualitative Emergency
Management
Rami Al-Salman, Frank Dylla and Lutz Frommberger
Abstract Emergency Management Systems (EMSs) are playing an important
role to save peoples lifes and to reduce the effects of disasters such as earthquakes or