Quick
Quick Look at Normalization
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Normalization
1NF
2NF
3NF
BCNF
Decomposition
Decomposition
Anomalies (Review)
Anomalies are inconsistencies in data that occur due to
unnecessary red
6.042/18.062J Mathematics for Computer Science
Tom Leighton and Ronitt Rubinfeld
October 26, 2006
Lecture Notes
Recurrences II
1
Asymptotic Notation and Induction
Weve seen that asymptotic notation is
CSCE 310: Data Structures &
CSCE
Algorithms
Algorithms
Asymptotic Notations*
Dr. Ying Lu
[email protected]
January 21, 2009
http:/www.cse.unl.edu/~ylu/csce310
*slides refrred to
http:/www.aw-bc.com/info
CS 1901715: Algorithms
Module 8: NP Completeness
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Dynamic Programming
When applicable:
Optimal substructure: optimal solution to problem
consists of optimal solutions to subproblems
Greedy Algorithms Technique
Dr. M. Sakalli,
modified from Levitin and CLSR
modified
Greedy Technique
Greedy
a
a
The first key ingredient is the greedy-choice property: a
The first
greedy-choice
global
Analysis of Algorithms
CS 477/677
Asymptotic Analysis
Instructor: George Bebis
(Chapter 3, Appendix A)
Analysis of Algorithms
An algorithm is a finite set of precise instructions
for performing a com
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 2: Heapsort
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Sorting Revisited
Dr. Azzam Sleit
2
Heaps
A heap can be seen as a complete binary tree:
16
14
10
8
2
7
4
9
3
1
A complete binary tree has
Asymptotic Notation,
Asymptotic Notation,
Review of Functions &
Review of Functions &
Summations
Summations
Fall 2008
Asymptotic Complexity
Running time of an algorithm as a function of
input size n
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 4 - Binary Search Trees
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Review: Binary Search Trees
Binary Search Trees (BSTs) are an important
data structure
Elements have:
key: an identifying fie
CS 1901715: Algorithms
Module 9: B-Tree
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
B-Trees
Dr. Azzam Sleit
2
Motivation for B-Trees
So far we have assumed that we can store an
entire data structure in main memory
What if we
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 1:
Introduction
Proof By Induction
Asymptotic notation
Divide and Conquer paradigm
Recurrences
Dr. Azzam Sleit
University of Jordan - Fall 2005
The Course
Purpose: a rigo
CS 1901441: Algorithms
Module 7: Graph Algorithms
Dr. Azzam Sleit
1
Graphs
A graph G = (V, E)
V = set of vertices
E = set of edges = subset of V V
Thus |E| = O(|V|2)
Dr. Azzam Sleit
2
Graphs Termi
Ordered Dictionaries Binary Search Trees
<
2 1 6 9 4= 8
Keys are assumed to come from a total order. New operations:
closestKeyBefore(k) closestElemBefore(k) closestKeyAfter(k) closestElemAfter(k)
1 B
D1: Matchings
D1: Matchings
Another D1 topic is matchings. A matching
is based on a bipartite graph.
The graphic in the top right corner is a bipartite
graph: a graph which has two sets of vertices
ar
How to Write a
Critique
Advanced Topics in Databases
Guidelines for writing paper
critiques
Each critique should be no more than one
page long. Less than a page is OK.
The purpose of a critique is n
Distributed DBMSs - Concepts & Design
Dr. Bassam Hammo
1
Concepts
Distributed Database
A logically interrelated collection of
shared data (and a description of this
data), physically distributed over
Algorithm Design Techniques:
Greedy Algorithms
Introduction
Algorithm Design Techniques
Design of algorithms
Algorithms commonly used to solve problems
Greedy, Divide and Conquer, Dynamic
Programm
Greedy Algorithms Technique
Dr. M. Sakalli,
modified from Levitin and CLSR
modified
Greedy Technique
Greedy
a
a
The first key ingredient is the greedy-choice property: a
The first
greedy-choice
global
Functional
Functional Dependencies &
Normalization
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Redundancy and Normalisation
Redundant Data
Can be determined from other data in the database
Leads to various problems
INSERT anoma
Functional Dependencies- Examples
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Exercise #1: FDs From DB Instances
1.
2.
3.
Below is an instance of R(A1,A2,A3,A4). Choose the FD
which may hold on R
A4 A1
A2A3 A4
A2A3 A1
Solution
Computing
Computing Canonical Cover
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Canonical Cover
A canonical cover for F is a set of dependencies Fc such that
F logically implies all dependencies in Fc, and
Fc logically implies
Decomposition,
Decomposition, 3NF, BCNF
Dr. Bassam Hammo
Decomposition of a Relation Schema
If a relation is not in a desired normal form, it can be
decomposed into multiple relations that each are in
Database
Searchin
g
Load &
Scalability
Testing
Data
Indexin
g
Database
Query
Processing
Data
Modelin
g
Database
Application
s
Data
Visualizatio
n
Multimedi
a
Databases
User
Interfaces &
Visualizatio
n
Transaction Concept
A transaction is a unit of execution
Database Recovery
Either committed or aborted.
After a transaction, the db must be consistent.
Consistent No violation of any constraint.
F
Transactions & Concurrency
Control
Bassam Hammo
Transactions
A transaction is an action, or a series of actions, carried out by a
single user or an application program, which reads or updates
the con
An Approach to Qualitative Emergency
Management
Rami Al-Salman, Frank Dylla and Lutz Frommberger
Abstract Emergency Management Systems (EMSs) are playing an important
role to save peoples lifes and to