Von Neumann architecture
Single bank of memory which processor
accesses through a single set of address
and data lines.
Processor core
Address bus
Data bus
Memory
Harvard Architecture
The Processor is connected to two
independent memory banks via two
inde
A
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
C
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Y
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
3input EXOR
Y=A B C
= A B C+A BC
AB C +ABC
= (1,2,4,7)
 ODD Function
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Odd Function
F=A B C
Even Function
F = (A B C)
1
1
1
1
1
F=A B C D
 ODD FUNCTION
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Latches are transparent (=> any change
on the inputs is seen at the outputs
immediately).
This causes synchronization problems!
Solution: use latches to create flipflops that
can respond (update) ONLY on SPECIFIC
times (instead of ANY time).
D FLIPFLOP
A Demultiplexer is a logic circuit that transmit
Information on a single line on one of 2n output
lines
Selection of output line depends on the value of
n select lines
A Decoder with enable input can function
as a Demultiplexer
Back to HDL
.
2to4 Line D ecoder
B/
A/
/Gate  level description of a 2to4 line decoder
module decoder_g1 ( A,B,E,D);
input A, B, E;
output [0:3]D;
wire Anot, Bnot, Enot;
not
B/
n1(Anot, A),
n2(Bnot, B),
n3( Enot, E);
A/
nand
n4 (D[0], Anot, Bnot, Eno
DESIGN WITH UNUSED STATES
Design the circuit using D Flip Flops
Answer:
Da=A B x
Db = C x + A+ B C x
Dc=A B x +Cx +Ax
Y= A x
The circuit is self correcting
STATE REDUCTION
STATE TABLE
Present
state
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Next State
X=0
a
c
a
e
a
g
a
X=1
b
d
d
f
f
Ripple Counter
Ripple
Synchr onous Bi nar y Count er s
Design with D Flip Flops
Design with J K Flip Flops
Serial Vs. Parallel Counters
Up down Binary Counter
Bi nar y Count er wi t h Par al l el Load
BCD Count er , A r b i t r ar y sequence Count er
Multiplication
Some general observations
1. Multiplication involves the generation of
partial products one for each digit in the
multiplier.
2. Partial products are summed to produce
the final product.
3. Partial products are very simple to define
for bin
KMaps Difficult in Visualization for
six variables and above
Not software adaptable
1. Find all the prime implicants
f ( a , b, c , d )
group 0
0 0000
group 1
1 0001
2 0010
8 1000
group 2
5
6
9
10
group 3
7 0111
14 1110
0101
0110
1001
1010
m(0,1,2,5,6,7,
Chapter 2
Mathematical Modelling
Electrical Systems
R
L
C
Voltage (e), Current (i)
Mathematical Modelling
iR = e / R
Mathematical Modelling
iR = e / R
iC= C de / dt
Mathematical Modelling
iR = e / R
iC = C de / dt
iL = (1/L) e dt
Mechanical Systems
M
K
ve
Chapter 4
Control
System
Components
DC Control Components
potentiometer
tachogenerator
dc servo motor
dc amplifier
amplification of
slowly varying
signals is
difficult 
hence.
ac / carrier
control
Systems
ac control system components
synchro pair
a
Chapter 5
Time Response
Analysis
Test signals
Impulse
Step
Ramp
Test signals
Sinusoidal.
(frequency response)
Laplace Transforms
Impulse (t)
step u1 (t)
1
1/s
Ramp t u1 (t)
1/s
2
Order
of
a
system is ?
Order
of
a
system is order
of the differential
Chapter 6
Algebraic Criterion
for stability
Stability of a system
means
bounded input
produces bounded
output
Stability of a system
means
In the absence of input
output tends to zero
C
G
=
R 1 + GH
1+GH = 0 is called the
characteristic equation
of the s
Chapter 8
Input is sinusoidal
Steady state output
will be sinusoidal with
same frequency for
amplitude and phase
will vary with
frequency
Example :
1
G (s) =
s +1
r (t) = sin
t
R (s) = 2
s +
2
C (s) =
2
2
(s + 1) (s + )
C (s) =
2
(1 + )
s
1
1
 2 2 +
Chapter 9
Given open loop
frequency response ,
determine closed
loop system stability
take
(s  z 1 ) (s  z 2 ) .
q (s) =
(s  p1 ) (s  p 2 ) .
s  plane
q(s) plane
Taking a closed
contour in s plane,
find its mapping in
q(s) plane.
s
P2
.
P3
.
P1
.
.<
MATLAB
 Matrix Laboratory
Contains
base program
plus tool boxes
(e. g. Control System Tool box)
To invoke matlab
type
cd\matlab\bin
at DOS prompt
C:\
> cd\matlab\bin
C:\MATLAB\BIN
>
Now type
matlab
Matlab prompt
will appear as
>
for demo, type demo
on ge
y = m x + C , m is Slope and C is Constant
Is an example of
Nonlinear, Time Invariant and Continuous
systems
An electric switch is a component in a
control system. This system is classified as:
Nonlinear
A system may be categorize as a
linear system if it
TwoPhase Induction Motor
In the twophase motor, two sets of coils are set perpendicular to each other surrounding the
core. When alternating current is sent to the coils, they become electromagnets where polarity
rapidly changes with each reversal of cu
ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL SYSTEMS
 Reproducibility of results
 Ease of design
 Programmability
 Speed
 Cost
 Integrated Circuits
 COMBINATIONAL
(Outputs depend only on present inputs)
SEQUENTIAL
( Depends on present & Previous inputs)
Involve timing a
+

o
r
t
n
o
C
G
s
y
S
l
H
s
m
e
t
Handout:
Operationofthecourse
CommonLecture
MultipleTutorial
Sections
Handout:
EvaluationComponents
TestI:50min:60:CB
TestII:50min:60:CB
Assignments
&Tutorials :60:OB
Compre:3Hours:120:CB
Assignments
Assignments
12t