Intelligent Systems 1
Lecture 1
Lecture 1
1
Outline
What are Intelligent Systems?
A brief history
The state of the art
Agents and environments
Rationality
PEAS (Performance measure, Environment, Actuators, Sensors)
Environment types
Agent types
Le

Module
12
Machine Learning
Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
Lesson
34
Learning From
Observations
Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
12.2 Concept Learning
Definition:
The problem is to learn a function mapping examples into two classes: positive and
negative. We are

Module
12
Machine Learning
Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
Lesson
38
Neural Networks - II
Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
12.4.3 Perceptron
Definition: Its a step function based on a linear combination of real-valued inputs. If the
combination is above a thresh

Basics of Probability
Basics of Probability
Logic-based Systems: Assumptions
Assertions are completely accurate
Observations are complete and error-free
Conclusions are equally viable
Inference rules are truth-preserving
Each of these may be unrealistic w

Problem solving and search
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
1
Outline
Problem-solving agents
Problem types
Problem formulation
Example problems
Basic search algorithms
Chapter 3
3
Problem-solving agents
Restricted form of general agent:
function Simple-Problem-So

Informed search algorithms
Chapter 4, Sections 12
Chapter 4, Sections 12
1
Administrivia: Labs
You should now have a running Prolog compiler
By the end of this week: Bratko Ch. 1 and start Ch. 2
By the end of this week: you should be able to write simpl

Local search algorithms
Chapter 4, Sections 34
Chapter 4, Sections 34
1
Outline
Hill-climbing
Simulated annealing
Genetic algorithms (briey)
Chapter 4, Sections 34
2
The Boolean Satisability Problem
Suppose you are given a formula like this:
F1 = (x1 x

First-order logic
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
1
Outline
Why FOL?
Syntax and semantics of FOL
Fun with sentences
Wumpus world in FOL
Chapter 8
2
Pros and cons of propositional logic
Propositional logic is declarative: pieces of syntax correspond
to facts
Propo

Tutorial Questions
Propostional Logic
1. Verify, using propositional symbols, whether the following argument is
valid:
S1 : One of the cook or the butler is not innocent.
S2 : Either the butler is lying or the cook is innocent
S3 : Therefore, the butler i

Logic Programs
Logic programs employ a special subset of
full rst-order logic, in which statements
are (largely) restricted to denite clauses
Clauses are of the form:
. . . ( . . . (1 n)
where n 0. is called the head of the
clause and 1 n is called its

Proofs with Logic Programs
Executing denite-clause denitions can sometimes lead to non-termination (innite loops)
or even unsound behaviour (recall the idiosyncratic behaviour of not/1)
How are logic programs executed?
1. Execution of propositional logic

Tutorial Questions
First-order Logic
1. Describe the dierences between the following statements: (a) x, yLikes(x, y);
(b) y, xLikes(x, y); (c) xyLikes(x, y); (d) yxLikes(x, y); (e) x, y
Likes(x, y).
2. Translate the following sentences into denite clauses

Module
12
Machine Learning
Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
12.1 Instructional Objective
The students should understand the concept of learning systems
Students should learn about different aspects of a learning system
Students should learn about taxonomy of