16.5 Permutation Groups
This project is self-contained, building on theory covered in the Part IA course Groups. Some
knowledge of the groups part of the Part IB course Groups, Rings and Modules would be useful.
11.1 The Van der Waals Equation
This project contains some theory which is not directly covered in the Statistical Physics course
but which is an extension of topics covered there. A clear exposition of the relevant theory
15.6 Computing roots modulo p
Background material for this project is contained in the Part II course Number Theory.
Throughout, p will be an odd prime number. An integer a coprime to p is called a quadratic