atomic orbitals do not have the same energy. If, for example, element B is more
electronegative than element A (B > A), the net result is a Saylor URL:
http:/www.saylor.org/books Saylor.org 843 skewed molecular orbital energylevel diagram, such as the one
delocalized approaches. 2. Carbon monoxide is highly poisonous because it binds
more strongly than O2 to the iron in red blood cells, which transport oxygen in the
blood. Consequently, a victim of CO poisoning suffocates from a lack of oxygen.
Draw a mole
pressure? Explain your answer. 2. Calculate the pressure in pascals and in
atmospheres exerted by a carton of milk that weighs 1.5 kg and has a base of 7.0
cm 7.0 cm. If the carton were lying on its side (height = 25 cm), would it exert
more or less press
their bond orders. Figure 9.35 Bonding in Ozone Saylor URL:
http:/www.saylor.org/books Saylor.org 863 (a) In the formation of the -bonded
framework, three sets of oxygen sp2hybrid orbitals overlap to give two OO
bonds and five lone pairs, two on each ter
top of the highway outside Estes Park (elevation 14,000 ft). He noticed that even
slight exertion was very difficult at this altitude, where the atmospheric pressure is
only 454 mmHg. Convert this pressure to a. atmospheres. b. kilopascals. Given:
pressur
pressure, derived from the SI units for force (newtons) and area (square meters), is
the newton per square meter (N/m2), which is called thepascal (Pa), after the
French mathematician Blaise Pascal (16231662): Equation 10.2 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 To
convert from p
the pressure inside the can (if it did not explode)? Given: initial volume, amount,
temperature, and pressure; final temperature Asked for: final pressure Strategy:
Follow the strategy outlined in Example 6. Solution: Prepare a table to determine
which pa
carbon atom overlap. With one bond plus two bonds, the carboncarbon bond
order in acetylene is 3. Note the Pattern In complex molecules, hybrid orbitals and
valence bond theory can be used to describe bonding, and unhybridized orbitals
and molecular orbit
individual p, d, and f orbitals are not spherically symmetrical, however, we need to
define a coordinate system so we know which lobes are interacting in threedimensional space. Recall from Chapter 6 "The Structure of Atoms", Section 6.5
"Atomic Orbitals
whether a condensed phase is a liquid or a solid. 6. 7. Elements that exist as gases
are mainly found in the upper right corner and on the right side of the periodic
table. The following elements exist as gases: H, He, N, O, F, Ne, Cl, Ar, Kr, Xe,
and Rn.
and the remaining 4 electrons occupy both the bonding and nonbonding
molecular orbitals. The overall CO bond order is therefore 112. Saylor URL:
http:/www.saylor.org/books Saylor.org 867 The Chemistry of Vision
Hydrocarbons in which two or more carboncar
molecules are constantly moving independently of the other molecules present.
Solids, in contrast, are relatively dense, rigid, and incompressible because their
intermolecular forces are so strong that the molecules are essentially locked in
place. Liquid
Lewis electron structures cannot. Figure 9.30 Molecular Orbital Energy-Level
Diagram for NO Saylor URL: http:/www.saylor.org/books Saylor.org 845 Because
NO has 11 valence electrons, it is paramagnetic, with a single electron occupying
the (p *2px, p *2py
nonbonding levels. The result is a single bond holding three oxygen atoms
together, or 12p bond per OO. We therefore predict the overall OO bond order to
be 112 (12p bond plus 1 bond), just as predicted using resonance structures. The
molecular orbital ap
also a gas. In contrast, bromine (as Br2) and mercury (Hg) are liquids under
normal conditions (25C and 1.0 atm, commonly referred to as room temperature
and pressure). Gallium (Ga), which melts at only 29.76C, can be converted to a
liquid simply by holdi
contributes one valence electron, the +1 charge indicates that one electron has been
removed. Placing the single electron in the lowest energy molecular orbital gives a
s13s electronic configuration and a bond order of 0.5. Consequently, Na2 + should
be a
rule. Two electrons each fill the 2s and s *2s orbitals, 2 fill the s 2pz orbital, 4 fill
the two degenerate orbitals, and 4 fill the two degenerate * orbitals, for a total
of 14 electrons. To determine what type of bonding the molecular orbital approach
temperatures and very high pressures. Before we can use the ideal gas law,
however, we need to know the value of the gas constant R. Its form depends on the
units used for the other quantities in the expression. If V is expressed in liters (L), P
in atmos
the force is exerted. The pressure exerted by Earths atmosphere, called
atmospheric pressure, is about 101 kPa or 14.7 lb/in.2 at sea level. Atmospheric
pressure can be measured with abarometer, a closed, inverted tube filled with
mercury. The height of t
global warming than the same mass of CO2. a. Draw the Lewis electron structure
of SF6 and determine the number of electron groups around the central atom, the
molecular geometry, and the hybridization of the central atom. b. Suggest a reason
for the extre
constantP = constant(1P) or V 1P where the symbol is read is proportional to.
A plot of V versus 1/P is thus a straight line whose slope is equal to the constant in
Equation 10.5 and Equation 10.6. Dividing both sides of Equation 10.5 by V
instead of P gi
had trouble breathing and nearly froze to death, but he set an altitude record that
endured for decades. (To put Gay-Lussacs achievement in perspective, recall that
modern jetliners cruise at only 35,000 ft!) The significance of the invariant T
intercept
bond? 13. What is the minimum number of nodes in , , *, and *? How are the
nodes in bonding orbitals different from the nodes in antibonding orbitals? 14. It is
possible to form both and molecular orbitals with the overlap of a d orbital
with a p orbital,
experiences a net pressure calledatmospheric pressure. The pressure exerted by the
atmosphere is considerable: a 1.0 m2 column, measured from sea level to the top
of the atmosphere, has a mass of about 10,000 kg, which gives a pressure of about
100 kPa: E
the existence of life. Because Earths atmosphere contains 20% oxygen, all organic
compounds, including those that compose our body tissues, should react rapidly
with air to form H2O, CO2, and N2 in an exothermic reaction. Fortunately for us,
however, this
appropriate units for the value of the gas constant. B Substitute these values into
Equation 10.23 to obtain the density. Solution: A The molar mass of butane
(C4H10) is (4)(12.011) + (10)(1.0079) = 58.123 g/mol Using 0.082057 (Latm)/
(Kmol) for R means t
V increases as P decreases (and vice versa) V increases as T increases (and vice
versa) V increases as n increases (and vice versa) Figure 10.9 Avogadros
Hypothesis Equal volumes of four different gases at the same temperature and
pressure contain the sam
lb/in.2, but we are so accustomed to living under this pressure that we never notice
it. Instead, what we notice are changes in the pressure, such as when our ears pop
in fast elevators in skyscrapers or in airplanes during rapid changes in altitude. We
m
attached to the bulb. In this case, the pressure of the gas in the bulb is the
atmospheric pressure minus the difference in the heights of the two columns. E X
A M P L E 4 Suppose you want to construct a closed-end manometer to measure
gas pressures in th
it crucial to our existence that O2 is paramagnetic? 31. Will NO or CO react more
quickly with O2? Explain your answer. 32. How is the energy-level diagram of a
heteronuclear diatomic molecule, such as CO, different from that of a homonuclear
diatomic mol