VOT 78041
EFFECTS OF ULTRASONIC WAVES ON VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM (VLE) OF NORMAL BINARY AND AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES
(KESAN ULTRABUNYI KE ATAS KESEIMBANGAN WAP-CECAIR(KWC) BAGI CAMPURAN BINARI BIASA DAN CAMPURAN AZEOTROP)
ADNAN BIN RIPIN SITI KHOLIJAH
Second moments of area moments of inertia
A
99
O
dx
y
F
C
L
x
x
B
Z
Fig. 11.6
Example 2
A ships waterplane is 18 metres long. The half-ordinates at equal distances
from forward are as follows:
0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 1.8, 1.5 and 1.2 metres, respectively
Find t
98
Ship Stability for Masters and Mates
The integral part of this expression can be evaluated by Simpsons Rules
using the values of y3 (i.e. the half-breadths cubed), as ordinates, and ICL is
found by multiplying the result by 23 . ICL is also known as th
100
Ship Stability for Masters and Mates
1
(CI)3 3 2
3
3
1 18
332.4 2 5983 m 4
3 6
I AB
I OZ I AB AX 2
5983 51.6 9.77 2
5983 4925
Ans. IOZ 1058 metres4
There is a quicker and more efficient method of obtaining the solution to
the above problem. Ins
Second moments of area moments of inertia
101
But
2
I LCF I
)( Ay 1090 .8 (51 .6 0 .77 )
1090.8 30.6
1060 m 4
i.e. very close to previous answer of 1058 m4.
With this improved method the levers are much less in value. Consequently
the error is decreased
Chapter 12
Calculating KB, BM
and metacentric
diagrams
The method used to determine the final position of the centre of gravity is
examined in Chapter 13. To ascertain the GM for any condition of loading
it is necessary also to calculate the KB and BM (i.
Calculating KB, BM and metacentric diagrams
105
but
Area DABC V
Area DAHC Area DABC
A
D
Draft
A
V/A
B
E
G
H
C
F
Area of water-plane
Fig. 12.2
The distance of the centroid of DABC below AD is the distance of the
centre of buoyancy below the load waterline
104
Ship Stability for Masters and Mates
L
B
W
L
L
W
B
B
Draft
K
KB 0.5 Draft
Fig. 12.1(b)
K
KB 2/3 Draft
Triangular-shaped vessel.
B
W
L
B
Draft
K
KB 0.535 Draft
Fig. 12.1(c)
Ship-shaped vessel.
and 0.49 draft. A closer approximation of this depth can be
Second moments of area moments of inertia
A
97
B
y
G
O
Z
Fig. 11.4
dx
y
C
L
L
Fig. 11.5
lb3
, and
3
therefore the second moment of the elementary strip about the centreline is
y 3dx
given by
and the second moment of the half waterplane about the
3
centrel
Experiment I5: VL Equilibrium and Batch Distillation
Laura Jones April 9, 2001
Introduction
Objectives Theory and Background Experimental Setup Experimental Procedure Calculations Questions
Objectives
Determine vaporliquid e
102
Ship Stability for Masters and Mates
6 A ships waterplane is 120 metres long. The half-ordinates at equidistant
intervals from forward are as follows:
0, 3.7, 7.6, 7.6, 7.5, 4.6 and 0.1 m, respectively
Calculate the second moment of the waterplane are