HYPOTHESIS TESTING
TESTS OF DIFFERENCES
CROSS TABULATION AND
THE CHI-SQUARE
Test
of association are used in
situations where the researcher has to
evaluate whether there is any
association between the variables
under study
Eg:
Association between Brand
p
Discipline Courses-I
Semester-I
Paper : Organization Behaviour
Lesson: Organizational Change
Lesson Developer: Sonu Mehta
College/Department: Keshav Mahavidyalaya,
University of Delhi
Institute of Life Long Learning , University of Delhi
Organisational Ch
SurveyResearch
NatureofSurveys
The method of collecting information by
asking a set of pre-formulated questions in a
predetermined sequence in a structured
questionnaire to a sample of individuals drawn
so as to be representative of a defined
population i
Research Design
Introduction
Research design is simply a plan for a study. This is used as a
guide in collecting and analyzing the data. It can be called a blue
print to carry out the study. It is like a plan made by an architect to
build the house, if a
Measurement Concepts in
Research
1
Define Measurement and Measurement
Scale
Types of Measurement Scales with
Example
Write Short notes on evaluating
measurement tools
Sl. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Project Title
A study on brand loyalty of bicycle owners in delivering
customer value and satisfaction
A Survey on dealer satisfaction
of Philips products in your city
with respect to customer value
and satisf
Measurement Concepts in
Business Research
The process of assigning numbers or
labels to different objects under study to
represent
them
quantitatively
or
qualitatively is called measurement .
Measurement and Scaling
Measurement means assigning numbers or
111
Causal Research Design:
Experimentation
Introduction
Descriptiveresearchwillsuggestarelationshipifanybetween
the variables, but it will not establish the cause and effect
relationshipbetweenthem.
Example: The data collected may show that the number of
Role of Empowerment and Incentives in Organizations
Discipline Courses-I
Semester-I
Paper : Organization Behaviour
Unit-II
Lesson: Role of Empowerment and Incentives in Organizations
Lesson Developer: Amrita Kaur
College/Department: Shaheed Bhagat Singh (
Tabulation of Data
Tabulation is a scientific process used
in setting out the collected data in an
understandable form .
Tabulation may be defined as logical
and
systematic
arrangement
of
statistical data in rows and columns.
Classification v/s Tabulation
CHISQUARETESTS
Alsoknownasdistributionfreetest.
Thesetestdonotdependonthespecificnatureofthe
populationdistributionfromwhichsamplesaretobe
drawn
Usesscaleofmeasurementsuchascategoricalorranksto
collectdata
A non-parametric statistical test should satisfy
Frequency Distribution and
Graphical Representation
Presentation of Data
D a ta T y p e
Q u a l it a t iv e
D a ta
T a b u la r
M e th o d s
F r e q u e n c y D is t r ib u t io n
Q u a n tita tiv e
D a ta
G ra p h ic a l
M e th o d s
B a r C h a rt
T a b
Measures of Central
Tendency
MEAN
CentralTendency
Central Tendency may be defined as the parameter in a
series of statistical observation, which reflects a central
value of the same series.
Major characteristics of an entire series of data reflected
by a
Data Collection Methods
Data Collection
Introduction
The search for answer to research
questions is called collection of data. Data
are facts and other relevant materials, past
and present, serving as bases for study and
analyses.
Eg:
The types of loans
ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT
Meaning of Attitude Measurement
An attitude is a mental state involving beliefs,
feelings, values and dispositions to act in a certain
way.
It can further be understood as a learned
predisposition to respond consistently in a positive
Test
AM
Outline a suitable Semantic Differential
scale to examine the corporate image of a
bank measured by its location, number of
branches,
timings,
service
quality,
behaviour of staff, etc.
How are attitude rating scales most
commonly applied in Busine
DATAPREPARATION
Introduction
Processing data is very important in Business Research. After collecting
the data, the next task of the researcher is to analyse and interpret the
data.Thepurposeofanalysisistodrawconclusions.Therearetwoparts
inprocessingtheda
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
Multivariate analysis is defined as
All statistical techniques which
simultaneously analyze more than
two variables on a sample of
observations.
Where
the sales level of a companys
product / service is influenced not only
by demand,
Analysis of Variance
Introduction
R A Fisher who introduced the term
Variance in the analysis of Statistical
data.
Fisher developed an elaborate technique
of analysing the variances of two or more
series for the purpose of studying their
characteristic.
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
Interdependency
Techniques
Interdependency Techniques
Interdependency techniques are used in
situations where no distinction is made
between variables which are independent
variables and those which are dependent
variable
Prominent i
Hypothesis Testing
Example:
A conjecture is made that the average
starting salary for Management Graduate
is Rs 40,0000 per year.
Question:
How can we justify/test this conjecture?
A. What do we need to know to justify
this conjecture?
B. Based on what we
HT
Unitel Semiconductors is a leading chip maker that
manufactures flash memory chips. It has received a
large order to supply flash memory chips with the
quality standard of4000 rating points.
If the consignments quality standard exceeds this
figure, it
ANOVA PROCEDURE
OneWayClassificationProcedure
1. Find the sum of the values of all the items of all the samples. Let this
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
total be represented by T.
Calculate the correction factor which is equal to (T2 / N). Where N is
the total numb