An infectious disease that can be transmitted from one
individual to another either directly by contact or
indirectly by fomite and vectors.
The living organisms or inanimate objects in which infectious
agents live and m
Environmental Engineering I
Lecture on Air Pollution
Dr. Atif Mustafa
Department of Environmental Engineering
NED University of Engineering & Technology
Layers of Atmosp
Coloumn capital : forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster). It mediates between the
column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface.
The enlarged cross-sectional area at the top of acolumn.
An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function
of an arterialroad is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways or expressways, and
between urban centres at the highest level of service
Chap # 4
Deals with the surveys of linear projects
Surveys of a narrow strip of highways, roads,
railroads, pipe lines, canals etc.
- Plunging or
CHAP # 4
TYPES OF VERTICAL CURVE
Geometry of vertical curve
Consider the curve as parabola.
Maximum allowable grades
Maximum grades allowed are dependent on
type of road (allowable speed).
Type of Road