9/7/16 bio notes
Steroids- lipids without tails.
Not for energy, butparts of cell membranes, raw material for membranes, and hormones.
All built around a 4 ring structure, the steroid backbone.
Female-estradiol, male- testosterone sex hormones. Hydrophobi
Bio notes 9/9
-Sickled cells resist plasmodium parasites, which cause malaria (bad air)
-regular foldings of polypeptide allow formation of regular sheets of hydrogen bonds within polypeptide
-James Watson and Francis Crick (1953) Cambridge universityDNA
Biology Lab Report 2
November 30, 2016
Lab 11: Mendelian Genetics, BYS 119 Lab Section 13
Lab Partners: Thema Walters, Erin Jewell, Laura Upton
Most of Gregor Mendels work was with plants, but the principl
High Heat of Vaporization
All liquids can vaporize, liquidgas.
Requires heat (energy) to break H-bonds.
H2O needs more energy to boil,
has higher boiling point,
is liquid across a wider temp. range,
than other room-temp. liquids.
Evaporating H2O takes
Buffer: chemical reaction to stabilize pH.
Releases or absorbs H+; reversible.
Biological processes very pH-sensitive.
Bicarbonate buffer (blood):
H2CO3 HCO3- + H+
maintains blood pH of 7.4.
If pH drops, reaction b
BYS 119 Principles of Biology
Prof. Bruce Stallsmith
Text book (10th edition, variety of forms, and yes,
you should have one)
Course requirements, goals
Lab & Recitation attendance both begin next
All our science, measured against re
In this reaction, two molecules of H2 combine
with one molecule of O2 to form two
molecules of H2O. (page 40)
Figure 2.17 Photosynthesis: a solar-powered rearrangement of matter
Neurotransmitters: brain chemistry
BYS 119 Exam 2 Review Questions
Chapters 6 through 10 in Campbell.
1. Be able to describe the flow of information and materials in the endomembrane system,
starting at the nucleus and ending at the plasma membrane (see figure 6.15, p. 109). Know the
Unit 2 Bio Notes and Questions
-The cell is the basic structure of life, and all life functions in and by cells. Cells must maintain themselves
distinct from the environment: homeostasis, acquire and process nutrients and energy, operate
Human Sex-Linked Recessive Traits
Hemophilia inability to form clots and stop
bleeding; lack of a protein.
Most famous case of familial hemophilia:
descendants of Queen Victoria of Britain.
Indirectly contributed to the overthrow of the
Unit 3 Bio
Cell Cycle- Reproduction
Cells reproduce through division. Several reasons for this is that cells wear out and need replacement,
and there is growth by increasing cell numbers. Reproduction happens either sexually or asexually.
Chromosomal Patterns of
The physical basis of Mendelian inheritance
Chromosome theory: Mendelian genes
have specific loci on chromosomes, and
these chromosomes undergo segregation
and independent assortment.
Mendels Dihybrid Cross
THE CELL CYCLE
A repeating sequence of growth, DNA
replication, and cell division.
The cell cycle includes 3 checkpoints where it
can stop for desired conditions.
Opposite is apoptosis, programmed cell death.
The product of the cell cycle i
The breakdown of carbohydrates and other
metabolites by using oxygen
Partial breakdown without oxygen use is
The buildup of ATP
The Redox Reaction
Oxidation loses electrons, reduction adds
Metabolism: Energy and
The metabolic pathway
Manages the material and energy resources of the
Enzymes route compounds through pathway by
selectively accelerating reactions
Catabolic pathways - Break down co
Directly or indirectly nourishes the living
Photo = Light; Synthesis = Making stuff
Turns solar energy into carbohydrate
(self-feed) Organisms sustain themselves
without eating other organisms
Robertson model postulated
phospholipid bilayer plus membrane proteins
all membranes in cells of same composition, thus
the Unit Membrane.
Singer and Nicolson improved on the unit
membrane model by suggesting that membrane
Diversity of Life
Genetics is the study of inheritance
Inheritance refers to traits or characteristics
which pass from parents to offspring during
1600s - debate begins between two competing
Overview: Variations on a
Living organisms are distinguished by
their ability to reproduce their own kind
Genetics is the scientific study of heredity
Heredity is the transmission of traits from
one generation to the next
Genotype to Phenotype
An organisms inherited DNA leads to
The link between DNA and traits is protein
Gene expression = the synthesis of proteins
as directed by DNA
Bread Mold Experiment
In the early 1900s, Beadle and Tatum
Molecular Basis of
Morgan had found genes located on
DNA and protein were the two
candidates a genetic material
Protein was favored
Specific in function
Foundation work in DNA as vehicle of
Carbohydrates are biologically
Sugars and starches
Usually have a 1:2:1 ratio of C:H:O in their empirical
They are used by living systems in the following
Main energy source molecules of life
Short term stora
Anton von Leeuwenhoek - 1600s
early user of microscope who stimulated use of this new scientific
Robert Hooke - 1600s
first used the term cell in describing the
Carbon has 6 electrons, 2 in the first shell and 4
in the second shell
Second shell will hold 8, so carbon likes to have
Usually shares its 4 electrons to form covalent
This makes carbon a point of intersection from which
Water and the Fitness of the
The water molecule is V-shaped
The water molecule is polar
Each end has an opposite charge
Oxygen has a negative charge
Hydrogens have a positive charge
Weak attractions between hydrogen
bonds of different mo
Atoms are the fundamental units of matter
Atoms - smallest units of elements that retain the physical
properties of that element.
92 naturally occurring, fundamental particles.
Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus - early concept
What makes something alive?
Life is difficult to define in a concise
Science = Precision / accuracy
Biologists - living things possess the
following characteristics (unifying concepts)
Characteristics of Life