Chapter 5 Volcano Classifications
Describe the different types of volcanic eruptions and how they are related to
o Mafic, basaltic magma
o Low viscosity, little gas
o Low explosivity (effusive)
Chapter 7 Landslides niche
List and describe 3 internal causes of landslides
o In all slopes
Add weight (overloading)
Decreases normal force/normal stress, which decreases
friction and thus Tf
Acts as a medium for flows
Chapter 8 Mineral Quartz
Let's look at the mineral quartz, which has a chemical formula of SiO 2, to
demonstrate the various ways of reporting composition.
SiO2 has 3 apfu: 1 atom of Si and 2 atoms of O. That means that on an
atom basis, it is 33% Si (
Chapter 2 Agile Emeralds
Perhaps the first known use of emeralds as decorative stones was by the
Pharaohs of Egypt.
Items dating back more than 1500 B.C. have been found, and the
emeralds are usually fashioned into beads that are then mounted in rings
Chapter 8 Characteristics of Natural Disasters
o location depends on view, ideal location for consumers, disregard
Explain why BC has the highest frequency of landslides
Assignment on Themes - Vancouver
City of Choice:
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
- Landmarks in Vancouver: Canada Place, Lions Gate Bridge, the Olympic Cauldron,
Rogers Arena, Science World and Stanley Park.
Chapter 6 American Gem Trade Association
The American Gem Trade Association (AGTA), Canadian Gemological
Association (CGA), Canadian Jewellers Association (CJA), and Jewelers Circular
Keystone (JCK) are all groups that provide benefits to their members.
Chapter 3 History of Rubies
The other famous star ruby is the Rosser Reeves Ruby it sits in the
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and weights 138.7
Rosser Reeves Star Ruby. Photo from the Smithsonian National Museum
of Natural History
Chapter 9 Substitutions
The extensive substitution between Fe and Mg is only allowed because the
cations of these two elements are pretty similar.
Both of those cations have a +2 charge and both have a similar ionic
radius, Mg with ~0.72 and Fe ~0.61 .
Chapter 5 - Platinum Group Metals (PGMs)
Platinum (Chemical Symbol: Pt) is commonly found with five other similar metals
in nature: palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir) and osmium
They are rarer than gold, have a number of high