The Self in Different Cultures
Western: independent self, individuality
Non-Western: interdependent self, collectivism
face others perceptions of the self and
maintaining ones desired status in their eyes
reputation achieved throug
Consumers in the Marketplace
1. Consumer behavior is a process.
2. Marketers have to understand the wants and needs of
different consumer segments.
3. Our choices as consumers relate in powerful ways to the rest
of our lives.
Decision Making and
1. The three categories of consumer decision making are
cognitive, habitual, and affective.
2. A cognitive purchase decision is the outcome of a series
of stages that results in the selectio
Learning and Memory
It is important to understand how consumers learn about
products and services.
Conditioning results in learning.
Learned associations with brands generalize to other
products, which is important to marketers.
Attitudes and Persuasion
The Power of Attitudes
Attitude: a lasting, general evaluation of people,
objects, advertisements, or issues
Attitude object (Ao): anything toward which one
has an attitude
Functional Theory of Attitudes
Products and commercial messages often
appeal to our senses.
Perception is a three-stage process that
translates raw stimuli into meaning.
Subliminal advertising is controversial-but largely
ineffective-way to talk to con