What is cancer?
Mark Nachtigal, PhD"
Dept. of Biochemistry & Medical Genetics"
Dept. Of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences"
Senior Scientist, Research Institute of Oncology & Hematology
What causes cancer?
Mark Nachtigal, PhD
1) Understand the difference between heritable
and sporadic cancer formation
2) Define the Knudson two-hit hypothesis
3) Discuss non-genetic factors th
Cell Signaling part 1
Suggested Reading: Chapter 15 Karp 7th ed.
15.1 Basic elements of cell signaling
15.2 Survey of messengers and receptors
15.3 G-protein-coupled receptors
A reminder of kinase/phosphatase and G prote
Interested in cancer biology?
A meet and greet with Dr. Nachtigal and Dr. Belmonte will
be held from 10:30-11:30 Wednesday March 27.
Coffee and donuts will be served!
Space is limited - must RSVP: [email protected]
Translation, Proteomics, Transcriptomics
11.8 Translating genetic information p. 468-477.
2.5 The emerging field of proteomics p. 70-73.
12.4 Transcriptional control p. 514-517
Stem cells and
Read Chapter 12
The structure of the mitotic chromosome
Nucleus as an organized organelle
Lecture 6:Cell Energetics
Fluorescent image of
fibroblast cell labeled with
mitochondria (green) and the
Suggested readings: Karp 7th ed., Chapters 3 and 5
5.1 Mitochondrion structure
5.2 Oxidative meta
Readings: Chapter 12
12.3 Control of gene expression in eukaryotes
12.4 Transcriptional level control
Different cells express different sets of genes
The human genome encodes approx. 20k genes coding for proteins
How is cancer treated?
Cellular Targets of Cancer Chemotherapeutics
Mark Nachtigal, PhD"
1) Understand the uses and sites of action of cancer
2) Learn the different clas
mitosis and cytokinesis
Read: (Karp, 7th ed.)
Section 14.2 M phase: Mitosis and cytokinesis
pp. 581 - 602
pp. 602 603
Mitosis is a process of nuclear division in
which two nuclei wi
Lecture 10. The endomembrane system and
the endoplasmic reticulum
Onion cells under a light microscope. With
staining you can see nuclei, mitochondria
Karp 7th ed. Chapter 8
8.1 Overview of the endomembrane system:271-
Structure, nuclear transport
Reading in Chapter 12 (Karp 7th Edition)
12.2 The Nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
488 - 493
General structure of the nucleus
The contents of the nucleus
Factors affecting microtubule stability
1. Rate of growth: more growth stabilizes the
microtubule because added tubulin dimers
have GTP bound (forming a GTP cap)
The rate of growth is largely dependent
on the concentration of tubulin dimers
Lecture 12: The Golgi Apparatus and
Suggested readings: Karp 7th ed, Chapter 8
Section 8.4 The Golgi Complex pp. 290-295
Section 8.5 Types of vesicle transport pp. 295-303
Excellent (and long!) video seminar by Randy Schekman:
Cell Interactions 1:
Why is this endothelial cell square?
This cell is grown in culture over a
set of proteins called fibronectin
arranged in a square. The
fibronectin signaled where the cell
should spread out to.
Suggested readings: Karp 7th edition Ch. 15 :
Death of cells
There are two ways in which cells die:
They are killed by injurious agents.
They are induced to commit suicide.
1. Death by injury (aka Necrosis)
Question from last lecture: Where do integral membrane
proteins that are resident in the nucleus get made, and how to
they get to the nucleus?
The outer nuclear
membrane is contiguous
with the RER. So easy
Resident IM proteins on the
Get the most authentic science experiences you can!
Biological Sciences Honours Course 4100
Feb 26, 2015
5:45 pm, 301 BSB
Lecture 16: Cytoskeleton - Part II
Intermediate Filaments, Actin and Myosin
Fluorescent image of a liver cell
pre-mRNAs vs hnRNAs
hnRNA includes all RNAs in the nucleus: pre-mRNAs, prerRNAs, pre-tRNAs etc
pre-mRNA is unprocessed mRNA (not yet spliced)
Lecture 22- DNA packaging and (some)
Please read: Karp, 7th ed.
Chromosomes and chromatin
Membrane transport II:
Suggested reading: Karp 7th edition
- Active transport is the pumping of
ions or molecules through a
membrane against their
Non-coding RNAs and RNAi
Gene silencing used to
turn off gene for wing
Suggested Readings: Karp 7th ed
11.5 Small regulatory RNAs
Ways to study gene/protein function in vivo
Its simpler to study prote
tRNA and rRNA
Fig 11.45 Karp 6th ed
tRNA & aminoacyl-tRNA synthase
Suggested readings from Chapter 11
11.3 Synthesis & processing of rRNA and tRNA
11.7 Decoding of codons
Overview of RNAs in the cell
DNA: the genes - the t
Lecture 1: Introduction to cell biology
An introduction and a bit of history
Basic properties of cells
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
The size of cells and their components
Suggested Readings from Chapter 1 (7th edition):
1.1 Discovery of Cells
Lecture 4: Membrane transport I Passive transport
Structure of lecture:
1. Overview of 4 ways solutes get across a membrane (basis of this
and next lecture)
2. Discussion of diffusion and osmosis
3. Going over ways passive transport of solutes across a
Cell Interactions 2:
Suggested readings: Karp 7th ed. Chapter 7
7.3 Interaction of cells with other cells pp. 250-260
7.4 Tight junctions
7.5 Gap junctions
Hemidesmosomes link the cell to the ECM
Monday March 30th
Wednesday April 1st
Friday April 3rd
Monday April 6th
Wednesday April 8th
Friday April 10th
Cell Signaling II
Suggested reading Karp 7th edition, Chapter 15