Coding Rules v1.6
Coding Rules
Section A: Linux kernel style based coding for C programs
Coding style for C is based on Linux Kernel coding style. The following excerpts in this section are mostly taken as is from
articles written by Greg Kroah-Hartman on

10.PERCENTAGE
IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
1.
Concept of Percentage : By a certain percent ,we mean that many hundredths. Thus
x percent means x hundredths, written as x%.
To express x% as a fraction : We have , x% = x/100.
Thus, 20% =20/100 =1/5; 48% =48

9. SURDS AND INDICES
I IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE I
1. LAWS OF INDICES:
(i)
am x an = am + n
(ii) am / an = am-n
(iii)
(am)n = amn
(iv)
(ab)n = anbn
(v) ( a/ b )n = ( an / bn )
(vi)
a0 = 1
2. SURDS: Let a be a rational number and n be a positive integer

8. PROBLEMS ON AGES
Ex. 1. Rajeev's age after 15 years will be 5 times his age 5 years back. What is the
present age of Rajeev ?
(Hotel Management,2002)
Sol. Let Rajeev's present age be x years. Then,
Rajeev's age after 15 years = (x + 15) years.
Rajeev's

7. PROBLEMS ON NUMBERS
In this section, questions involving a set of numbers are put in the form of a puzzle. You
have to analyze the given conditions, assume the unknown numbers and form equations
accordingly, which on solving yield the unknown numbers.

6.AVERAGE
Ex.1:Find the average of all prime numbers between 30 and 50?
Sol: there are five prime numbers between 30 and 50.
They are 31,37,41,43 and 47.
Therefore the required average=(31+37+41+43+47)/5 199/5 39.8.
Ex.2. find the average of first 40 natu

SQUARE ROOTS AND CUBE ROOTS
IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
Square Root: If x2 = y, we say that the square root of y is x and we write, y = x.
Thus, 4 = 2, 9 = 3, 196 = 14.
Cube Root: The cube root of a given number x is the number whose cube is x. We
denote

4. SIMPLIFICATION
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
I. BODMASRule: This rule depicts the correct sequence in which the operations are to be
executed,so as to find out the value of a given expression.
Here, B stands for bracket ,Ofor of , D for division and M for multipl

3. DECIMAL FRACTIONS
IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
I. Decimal Fractions : Fractions in which denominators are powers of 10 are known as decimal
fractions.
Thus ,1/10=1 tenth=.1;1/100=1 hundredth =.01;
99/100=99 hundreths=.99;7/1000=7 thousandths=.007,etc
I

2. H.C.F. AND L.C.M. OF NUMBERS
IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
I. Factors and Multiples : If a number a divides another number b exactly, we say that a
is a factor of b. In this case, b is called a multiple of a.
II. Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) or Greate

11. PROFIT AND LOSS
IMPORTANT FACTS
COST
PRICE:
THE
PRICE
AT
PURCHASED.ABBREVATED AS C.P.
WHICH
ARTICLE
IS
SELLING PRICE: THE PRICE AT WHICH ARTICLE IS SOLD.
PROFIT OR GAIN:IF SP IS GREATER THAN CP,THE SELLING PRICE
IS SAID TO HAVE PROFIT OR GAIN.
LOSS: I

12. RATIO AND PROPORTION
IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
I. RATIO: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units, is the fraction a/b and we
write it as a:b.
In the ratio a:b, we call a as the first term or antecedent and b, the second term or
conseq

1
Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering
College
Laboratory Manual
DIGITAL SYSTEMS
For
Second Year Students
Manual made by
Prof.S.G. SURYAWANSHI
Author JNEC, Aurangabad
2
Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering
College
Technical Document
This technical document is a series o

Performance Metrics
Possible measures:
response time time elapsed between start and end
of a program
throughput amount of work done in a fixed time
The two measures are usually linked
A faster processor will improve both
More processors will likely

Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad
Probability and Statistics
Problem Set 01
1. Let be a sample space of a random experiment and F be a -field (or -algebra) on the subset of . Let
A, B, C F. What is the event that only A occurs? What is

Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad
Probability and Statistics
Problem Set 03
1. Twenty distinguishable balls are placed at random in six boxes that are labeled as
B1 , . . . , B6 . Find the probability that boxes with labels B1 , B2 , an

Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad
Probability and Statistics
Problem Set 02
1. Are the following functions distribution functions?
0 if x < 5
x if 5 x 0.5
(a) F1 (x) =
1 if x > 0.5.
1
1
(b) F2 (x) = + tan1 (x), < x < +.
2
0
if x < 0
(

14. CHAIN RULE
_IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
1. Direct Proportion: Two quantities are said to be directly proportional, if on the increase (or
decrease) of the one, the other increases (or decreases) to the same
Ex. 1. Cost is directly proportional to the

13. PARTNERSHIP
!IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE I
1. Partnership: When two or more than two persons run a business jointly, they are
called partners and the deal is known as partnership.
2. Ratio of Division of Gains:
i) When investments of all the partners

1. NUMBERS
IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
I.Numeral : In Hindu Arabic system, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
c alled d igits t o represent any number.
A g roup of digits, denoting a number is called a numeral.
W e represent a number, say 68

Purpose: To inform
Audience: Instructor as well as class members, most of whom are 18-19 years old
Tone: Serious and straightforward
Point of view: Third Person
Thesis: The writer
Pattern of development: Reasoning
Organizational approach: Logical order
I.

Choices in Systems Acquisition
Objectives
Explain the differences among the alternatives to:
-Tailored System Development
- Outsourcing,
- Licensing (ready-made software),
- Contracting with an ASP
- Encouraging Users to Develop their Own Applications
L

Re-engineering
and
ERP
1
Process Re-engineering
Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of
business processes
Goal is to achieve major improvements in
critical, contemporary measures of performance
Examples are: costs, quality service, and speed
2
Cha

Planning, Design, and
Implementation of
Information Systems
1
Objective
Understand the information systems
implementation process for enterprise
systems, including:
Planning,
Design, and
Implementation
2
Implementation Model
The model thus proposed con

Types of Digital Data
Learning Objectives and Learning Outcomes
Learning Objectives
Introduction to digital data and its types
Learning Outcomes
(a) To differentiate between
structured, unstructured and
1.Structured data origin, organization,
semi-structu

Cloud Computing, Virtualization
& Green IT
Cloud computing can change how IT
supports business
Consider the following:
As much as 85% of computing capacity sits idle in
distributed computing environments.
Seventy percent of IT budgets is typically spent o

Service Oriented
Architecture (SOA)
Outline
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA):
Definition, Characteristics
Differences: SOA vs. existing Model Driven
Architecture (MDA)
SOA Implementation Framework and
Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
Benefits and reaso

EAI and ERP
Need for Integration
SCM
/CRM
ERP
D/W
Approaches to integration:
Integration of ERP with SCM and CRM is required at following
levels:
Transaction level
Management control level
Decision analysis level
Strategic planning level
Approaches to

AMC contract Process
Three months prior to the expiry of warranty or AMC, CBO downloads the expiry list.
This file is sent to branch -wise area manager and service marketing engineer-SME. Generally it is not
acted upon
At the time of warranty expiry/AMC e