132
132
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 5
STATES OF MATTER
The snowflake falls, yet lays not long
Its feathry grasp on Mother Earth
Ere Sun returns it to the vapors Whence it came,
Or to waters tumbling down the rocky slope.
After studying this unit you will be
able to
Ro

HYDROCARBONS
365
UNIT 13
HYDROCARBONS
Hydrocarbons are the important sources of energy.
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
name hydrocarbons according to
IUPAC system of nomenclature;
recognise and write structures
of isomers of alkanes, alkene

CHAPTER TWO
UNITS
AND
MEASUREMENT
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The international system of
units
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Measurement of length
Measurement of mass
Measurement of time
Accuracy, precision of
instruments and errors in
measurement
2.7 Signif

Chapter
9
SEQUENCES AND SERIES
Natural numbers are the product of human spirit. DEDEKIND
9.1 Introduction
In mathematics, the word, sequence is used in much the
same way as it is in ordinary English. When we say that a
collection of objects is listed in

Chapter
14
MATHEMATICAL REASONING
There are few things which we know which are not capable of
mathematical reasoning and when these can not, it is a sign that our
knowledge of them is very small and confused and where a mathematical
reasoning can be had,

Chapter
16
PROBABILITY
Where a mathematical reasoning can be had, it is as great a folly to
make use of any other, as to grope for a thing in the dark, when
you have a candle in your hand. JOHN ARBUTHNOT
16.1 Introduction
In earlier classes, we studied a

Chapter
12
INTRODUCTION TO THREE
DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Mathematics is both the queen and the hand-maiden of
all sciences E.T. BELL
12.1 Introduction
You may recall that to locate the position of a point in a
plane, we need two intersecting mutually perpend

Chapter
13
LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES
With the Calculus as a key, Mathematics can be successfully applied to the
explanation of the course of Nature WHITEHEAD
13.1 Introduction
This chapter is an introduction to Calculus. Calculus is that
branch of mathemati

Chapter
15
STATISTICS
Statistics may be rightly called the science of averages and their
estimates. A.L.BOWLEY & A.L. BODDINGTON
15.1 Introduction
We know that statistics deals with data collected for specific
purposes. We can make decisions about the da

CHAPTER TWELVE
THERMODYNAMICS
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
Introduction
Thermal equilibrium
Zeroth law of
Thermodynamics
Heat, internal energy and
work
First law of
thermodynamics
Specific heat capacity
Thermodynami

CHAPTER THIRTEEN
KINETIC THEORY
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
Introduction
Molecular nature of matter
Behaviour of gases
Kinetic theory of an ideal gas
Law of equipartition of energy
Specific heat capacity
Mean free path
Summary
Poi

CHAPTER SEVEN
SYSTEMS
OF
PARTICLES
AND
ROTATIONAL MOTION
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
Introduction
Centre of mass
Motion of centre of mass
Linear momentum of a
system of particles
Vector product of two
vect

ANSWERS
391
ANSWERS
Chapter 9
9.1
1.8
9.2
(a) From the given graph for a stress of 150 106 N m-2 the strain is 0.002
(b) Approximate yield strength of the material is 3 108 N m-2
9.3
(a) Material A
(b) Strength of a material is determined by the amount of

BIBLIOGRAPHY
TEXTBOOKS
For additional reading on the topics covered in this book, you may like to consult one or
more of the following books. Some of these books however are more advanced and contain
many more topics than this book.
1
Ordinary Level Physi

CK
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
PREFACE
A NOTE FOR THE TEACHERS
C H A P T E R
iii
vii
x
9
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
Introduction
Elastic behaviour of solids
Stress and strain
Hookes law
Stress-strain curve
Elastic moduli
Application

ANSWERS
403
INDEX
A
Absolute scale temperature
Absolute zero
Acceleration (linear)
Acceleration due to gravity
Accuracy
Action-reaction
Addition of vectors
Adiabatic process
Aerofoil
Air resistance
Amplitude
Angle of contact
Angstrom
Angular Acceleration

CHAPTER SIX
WORK, ENERGY
AND
POWER
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Notions of work and kinetic
energy : The work-energy
theorem
6.3 Work
6.4 Kinetic energy
6.5 Work done by a variable
force
6.6 The work-energy theorem for
a variable force
6.7 The co

CHAPTER ELEVEN
THERMAL PROPERTIES
OF
MATTER
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.1
11.2
11.3
Introduction
Temperature and heat
Measurement of
temperature
11.4 Ideal-gas equation and
absolute temperature
11.5 Thermal expansion
11.6 Specific heat capacity
11.7 Calorimetry

CHAPTER NINE
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
9.1
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
Introduction
Elastic behaviour of solids
Stress and strain
Hookes law
Stress-strain curve
Elastic moduli
Applications of elastic
behaviour of materials
Summary
Points to ponder
Exercises
A

Chapter
1
SETS
In these days of conflict between ancient and modern studies; there
must surely be something to be said for a study which did not
begin with Pythagoras and will not end with Einstein; but
is the oldest and the youngest. G.H. HARDY
1.1 Intr

Appendix
2
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
A.2.1 Introduction
Much of our progress in the last few centuries has made it necessary to apply
mathematical methods to real-life problems arising from different fields be it Science,
Finance, Management etc. The use of

THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
291
UNIT 10
THE s -BLOCK ELEMENTS
The first element of alkali and alkaline earth metals differs
in many respects from the other members of the group
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
describe the general characteristics o

276
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 9
HYDROGEN
Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe and the
third most abundant on the surface of the globe, is being
visualised as the major future source of energy.
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
present inf

THE p-BLOCK ELEMENTS
307
UNIT 11
THE p -BLOCK ELEMENTS
The variation in properties of the p-block elements due to the
influence of d and f electrons in the inner core of the heavier
elements makes their chemistry interesting
After studying this unit, you

326
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 12
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES
AND TECHNIQUES
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
understand
reasons
for
tetravalence of carbon and
shapes of organic molecules;
write structures of organic
molecules in various ways

ANSWERS
7
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
Reactions
Classical Idea of Redox Reactions-Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions
Oxidation Number
Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes
iii
Unit 8
Redox
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
255

REDOX REACTIONS
255
UNIT 8
REDOX REACTIONS
Where there is oxidation, there is always reduction
Chemistry is essentially a study of redox systems.
After studying this unit you will be
able to
identify redox reactions as a class
of reactions in which oxida

154
154
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 6
THERMODYNAMICS
It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning
which I am convinced that, within the framework of the
applicability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown.
After studying this Unit, you w

Egyptian Fractions
Kevin Gong
UC Berkeley
Math 196 Spring 1992
Faculty Advisor:
Professor Andrew Ogg
EGYPTIAN FRACTIONS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Acknowledgments
Thanks to my faculty advisor, Professor Andrew Ogg.
Thanks to Paul Campbell for a biography of sources

MTH 305
Homework 1
Due: 16/08/17
Instructor: Ajit Bhand
1. In each of the following, determine whether the given sentence is a statement or
not. If yes, find its truth value.
(a) February is the second month of the year .
(b) Let x be a positive natural n

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