HYDROCARBONS
365
UNIT 13
HYDROCARBONS
Hydrocarbons are the important sources of energy.
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
name hydrocarbons according to
IUPAC system of nomenclature;
recognise and write structures
of isomers of alkanes, alkene

Chapter
5
COMPLEX NUMBERS AND
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Mathematics is the Queen of Sciences and Arithmetic is the Queen of
Mathematics. GAUSS
5.1 Introduction
In earlier classes, we have studied linear equations in one
and two variables and quadratic equation

Chapter
4
PRINCIPLE OF
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Analysis and natural philosopy owe their most important discoveries to
this fruitful means, which is called induction. Newton was indebted
to it for his theorem of the binomial and the principle of
universal g

Chapter
2
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Mathematics is the indispensable instrument of
all physical research. BERTHELOT
2.1 Introduction
Much of mathematics is about finding a pattern a
recognisable link between quantities that change. In our
daily life, we co

Chapter
10
STRAIGHT LINES
G eometry, as a logical system, is a means and even the most powerful
means to make children feel the strength of the human spirit that is
of their own spirit. H. FREUDENTHAL
10.1 Introduction
We are familiar with two-dimensional

Appendix
2
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
A.2.1 Introduction
Much of our progress in the last few centuries has made it necessary to apply
mathematical methods to real-life problems arising from different fields be it Science,
Finance, Management etc. The use of

Chapter
1
SETS
In these days of conflict between ancient and modern studies; there
must surely be something to be said for a study which did not
begin with Pythagoras and will not end with Einstein; but
is the oldest and the youngest. G.H. HARDY
1.1 Intr

Chapter
15
STATISTICS
Statistics may be rightly called the science of averages and their
estimates. A.L.BOWLEY & A.L. BODDINGTON
15.1 Introduction
We know that statistics deals with data collected for specific
purposes. We can make decisions about the da

Chapter
13
LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES
With the Calculus as a key, Mathematics can be successfully applied to the
explanation of the course of Nature WHITEHEAD
13.1 Introduction
This chapter is an introduction to Calculus. Calculus is that
branch of mathemati

Chapter
12
INTRODUCTION TO THREE
DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Mathematics is both the queen and the hand-maiden of
all sciences E.T. BELL
12.1 Introduction
You may recall that to locate the position of a point in a
plane, we need two intersecting mutually perpend

Chapter
16
PROBABILITY
Where a mathematical reasoning can be had, it is as great a folly to
make use of any other, as to grope for a thing in the dark, when
you have a candle in your hand. JOHN ARBUTHNOT
16.1 Introduction
In earlier classes, we studied a

Chapter
14
MATHEMATICAL REASONING
There are few things which we know which are not capable of
mathematical reasoning and when these can not, it is a sign that our
knowledge of them is very small and confused and where a mathematical
reasoning can be had,

Chapter
9
SEQUENCES AND SERIES
Natural numbers are the product of human spirit. DEDEKIND
9.1 Introduction
In mathematics, the word, sequence is used in much the
same way as it is in ordinary English. When we say that a
collection of objects is listed in

Chapter
3
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
A mathematician knows how to solve a problem,
he can not solve it. MILNE
3.1 Introduction
The word trigonometry is derived from the Greek words
trigon and metron and it means measuring the sides of
a triangle. The subjec

Chapter
11
CONIC SECTIONS
Let the relation of knowledge to real life be very visible to your pupils
and let them understand how by knowledge the world could be
transformed. BERTRAND RUSSELL
11.1 Introduction
In the preceding Chapter 10, we have studied v

398
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 14
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
The world has achieved brilliance without wisdom, power
without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and
ethical infants.
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
understand the meaning of
enviro

154
154
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 6
THERMODYNAMICS
It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning
which I am convinced that, within the framework of the
applicability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown.
After studying this Unit, you w

REDOX REACTIONS
255
UNIT 8
REDOX REACTIONS
Where there is oxidation, there is always reduction
Chemistry is essentially a study of redox systems.
After studying this unit you will be
able to
identify redox reactions as a class
of reactions in which oxida

ANSWERS
7
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
Reactions
Classical Idea of Redox Reactions-Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions
Oxidation Number
Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes
iii
Unit 8
Redox
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
255

326
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 12
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES
AND TECHNIQUES
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
understand
reasons
for
tetravalence of carbon and
shapes of organic molecules;
write structures of organic
molecules in various ways

THE p-BLOCK ELEMENTS
307
UNIT 11
THE p -BLOCK ELEMENTS
The variation in properties of the p-block elements due to the
influence of d and f electrons in the inner core of the heavier
elements makes their chemistry interesting
After studying this unit, you

276
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 9
HYDROGEN
Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe and the
third most abundant on the surface of the globe, is being
visualised as the major future source of energy.
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
present inf

THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
291
UNIT 10
THE s -BLOCK ELEMENTS
The first element of alkali and alkaline earth metals differs
in many respects from the other members of the group
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
describe the general characteristics o

ANSWERS
7
CONTENTS
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Foreword
iii
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
1
1.1
Importance of Chemistry
1
1.2
Nature of Matter
2
1.3
Properties of Matter and their Measurement
4
1.4
Uncertainty in Measurement
8
1.5
Laws of Chemical Combination

APPENDIX
231
Appendix I
Definitions of the SI Base Units
Metre (m): The metre is the length of path travelled by light in vacuum during a time
interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second (17th CGPM, 1983).
Kilogram (kg): The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is

26
26
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 2
STRUCTURE OF ATOM
The rich diversity of chemical behaviour of different elements
can be traced to the differences in the internal structure of
atoms of these elements.
After studying this unit you will be
able to
know about the disc

70
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 3
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND
PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
After studying this Unit, you will be
able to :
appreciate how the concept of
70
grouping elements in accordance to
their properties led to the
development of Periodic Table.
un

1
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY
1
UNIT 1
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
understand and appreciate the
role of chemistry in different
spheres of life;
explain the characteristics of
three states of matte

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