132
132
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 5
STATES OF MATTER
The snowflake falls, yet lays not long
Its feathry grasp on Mother Earth
Ere Sun returns it to the vapors Whence it came,
Or to waters tumbling down the rocky
Chapter
8
BINOMIAL THEOREM
Mathematics is a most exact science and its conclusions are capable of
absolute proofs. C.P. STEINMETZ
8.1 Introduction
In earlier classes, we have learnt how to find the sq
HYDROCARBONS
365
UNIT 13
HYDROCARBONS
Hydrocarbons are the important sources of energy.
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
name hydrocarbons according to
IUPAC system of nomenclature;
recog
154
154
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 6
THERMODYNAMICS
It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning
which I am convinced that, within the framework of the
applicability of its basic concepts, it wi
ANSWERS
391
ANSWERS
Chapter 9
9.1
1.8
9.2
(a) From the given graph for a stress of 150 106 N m-2 the strain is 0.002
(b) Approximate yield strength of the material is 3 108 N m-2
9.3
(a) Material A
(b
Chapter
14
MATHEMATICAL REASONING
There are few things which we know which are not capable of
mathematical reasoning and when these can not, it is a sign that our
knowledge of them is very small and c
Chapter
16
PROBABILITY
Where a mathematical reasoning can be had, it is as great a folly to
make use of any other, as to grope for a thing in the dark, when
you have a candle in your hand. JOHN ARBUTH
Chapter
12
INTRODUCTION TO THREE
DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Mathematics is both the queen and the hand-maiden of
all sciences E.T. BELL
12.1 Introduction
You may recall that to locate the position of a poin
Chapter
13
LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES
With the Calculus as a key, Mathematics can be successfully applied to the
explanation of the course of Nature WHITEHEAD
13.1 Introduction
This chapter is an introdu
Chapter
15
STATISTICS
Statistics may be rightly called the science of averages and their
estimates. A.L.BOWLEY & A.L. BODDINGTON
15.1 Introduction
We know that statistics deals with data collected fo
Chapter
9
SEQUENCES AND SERIES
Natural numbers are the product of human spirit. DEDEKIND
9.1 Introduction
In mathematics, the word, sequence is used in much the
same way as it is in ordinary English.
CHAPTER TWELVE
THERMODYNAMICS
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
Introduction
Thermal equilibrium
Zeroth law of
Thermodynamics
Heat, internal energy and
work
First la
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
KINETIC THEORY
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
Introduction
Molecular nature of matter
Behaviour of gases
Kinetic theory of an ideal gas
Law of equipartition of e
CHAPTER ELEVEN
THERMAL PROPERTIES
OF
MATTER
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.1
11.2
11.3
Introduction
Temperature and heat
Measurement of
temperature
11.4 Ideal-gas equation and
absolute temperature
11.5 Thermal
CHAPTER SIX
WORK, ENERGY
AND
POWER
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Notions of work and kinetic
energy : The work-energy
theorem
6.3 Work
6.4 Kinetic energy
6.5 Work done by a variable
force
6.6
ANSWERS
403
INDEX
A
Absolute scale temperature
Absolute zero
Acceleration (linear)
Acceleration due to gravity
Accuracy
Action-reaction
Addition of vectors
Adiabatic process
Aerofoil
Air resistance
Am
CK
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
PREFACE
A NOTE FOR THE TEACHERS
C H A P T E R
iii
vii
x
9
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
Introduction
Elastic behaviour of solids
Stress and strain
Ho
BIBLIOGRAPHY
TEXTBOOKS
For additional reading on the topics covered in this book, you may like to consult one or
more of the following books. Some of these books however are more advanced and contain
Chapter
1
SETS
In these days of conflict between ancient and modern studies; there
must surely be something to be said for a study which did not
begin with Pythagoras and will not end with Einstein; b
Appendix
2
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
A.2.1 Introduction
Much of our progress in the last few centuries has made it necessary to apply
mathematical methods to real-life problems arising from different fie
Chapter
10
STRAIGHT LINES
G eometry, as a logical system, is a means and even the most powerful
means to make children feel the strength of the human spirit that is
of their own spirit. H. FREUDENTHAL
398
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 14
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
The world has achieved brilliance without wisdom, power
without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and
ethical infants.
After studying this uni
REDOX REACTIONS
255
UNIT 8
REDOX REACTIONS
Where there is oxidation, there is always reduction
Chemistry is essentially a study of redox systems.
After studying this unit you will be
able to
identify
ANSWERS
7
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
Reactions
Classical Idea of Redox Reactions-Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions
Oxidation Number
Redox Reactions and E
326
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 12
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES
AND TECHNIQUES
After studying this unit, you will be
able to
understand
reasons
for
tetravalence of carbon and
shapes of organic molecules
THE p-BLOCK ELEMENTS
307
UNIT 11
THE p -BLOCK ELEMENTS
The variation in properties of the p-block elements due to the
influence of d and f electrons in the inner core of the heavier
elements makes the
276
CHEMISTRY
UNIT 9
HYDROGEN
Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe and the
third most abundant on the surface of the globe, is being
visualised as the major future source of energy.
Aft