Chapter 4: IGNEOUS ROCKS
Solids from Melts
About Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks form from liquid rock
(magma) in several different ways.
Igneous processes within the Earth
produce intrusive igneous rocks.
Igneous processes on or near Earths
Structural geology is a branch of geology where geological
structures in rocks and sediments are studied to understand
their Origin, Occurrence, time frame and Causes
ATTITUDES IN THE ROCKS
Rock masses (layered or str
From Mountains to Oceans
1. Stream valley, channels, and floodplains
2. Drainage networks
3. How running water erodes solid rock
4. How stream waters flow and transport
5. Deltas: the mouths of river
Chapter 6: METAMORPHISM
Modification of Rocks by
Temperature and Pressure
1. Metamorphism and the Earth system
2. Causes of metamorphism
3. Types of metamorphism
4. Metamorphic textures
5. Regional metamorphism and
WEATHERING and SOIL FORMATION
2. Controls on weathering
3. Chemical weathering
4. Physical weathering
5. Soil: the residue of weathering
1. Weathering, erosion, and the rock
Weathering produces all the
What is Managerial Economics?
Why should we care about learning economics?
How do economic concepts help run a business?
Economics is everywhere!
We just need to pay attention to see economics behind
every human decis
CVL381: Design of Hydraulic Structures
Advantages and disadvantages
Selection of type of Dam
What is a dam?
A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material
built across a river to crea
Tensile Test of Steel Specimen
Civil engineering Department
Table of Contents
An attempt to
Dr. J. N. Malik
Ph. 7723 (o) 8534 (R)
Email: [email protected]
Importance of geosciences in civil engineering
Plate tectonics Rock cycle (Continental drift, sea-floor
Mount St. Helens
St. Helens (USA)
It remained quit for about a century
As magma moved up it resulted into bulging of the mountain a dome
Erupted on May 18, 1980. With a small magnitude earthquake 5.2
What is Metamorphism?
Metamorphism is a change in form that
happens in Earths crustal rocks in
response to changes in temperature
When rocks are baked by heat of molten magma (internal
heat) or squeezed
What is a Mineral?
How Minerals are
Major Locations where Magma
come out from Volcanoes
Following definitions of mineral from different sources:
"A mineral is a naturally occurring homogeneous solid, inorganically form
The principle of isostasy governs the rise or
subsidence of the crust until the mass is
Because of isostasy, all parts of the lithosphere
J N Malik
J N Malik
Stages of formation of
Weathering: Physical or chemical
Transportation: by agents like water, wind, ice,
gravity. Mode of transp
THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
About the Hydrologic Cycle
Hydrology is the study of movements and
characteristics of (surface & ground)water.
The hydrologic cycle has a profound effect
upon climate prediction.
Water is vital so we m
Chapter 3: EARTH MATERIALS
Minerals and Rocks
Importance of minerals?
-Essential in many engineering fields
-Use of proper minerals as construction materials
-Used as raw material for marketable products
-In electronic industry, minerals or the syntheti
Introduc8on to gene8c engineering
Dr. Ashok Patel
Essen8als of Gene8cs and outcome of gene8c engineering
Why does a commercial dairy cow produce four 9mes as much milk as