CHEMICAL KINETICS
Chemical kinetics: is study of Rates of reaction under different conditions. It is speed study of
reaction.
Factors affecting variation in Rate of Chemical reactions are like, Concentration, temperature, and
time.
By and large the factor
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #25 (Th Nov 3):
Key Concepts 9CDetermine a Rate Law from Measurements of Concentration vs. Time,
9DUse Integrated Rate Laws to Predict How Concentration Varies with Time, and
9EExpla
Analysis Using Integral Method for Key Concepts 9C & 9D Based on Data for Practice Problem for Key Concept 9A
[H2O2] (M)
2.32
2.01
1.72
1.49
0.98
0.62
0.25
t (s)
0
200
400
600
1200
1800
3000
ln([H2O2]) (ln(M)
8.42E01
6.98E01
5.42E01
3.99E01
2.02E
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
For end points we estimate the slope using two points as:
d [ A]
[ A]1 [ A] 0
t1 t 0
dt j = 0
The ThreePoint Method works best with equallyspaced time intervals (i.e., measurements are
made at t =
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #24 (W Nov 2): Key Concepts 9ARelate Rates of Disappearance of
Reactants & Appearance of Products and 9BDeduce Rate Laws Based on Initial Rates
Summary of Todays Lecture
1) An instant
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #23 (M Oct 31): Key Concept 8DUse Hesss Law to Relate Reaction
Enthalpy for Sets of Reactions and Key Concept 8EDetermine Reaction Enthalpy Based
on Standard Molar Enthalpies of Forma
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #22 (Th Oct 27): Key Concept 8C
Determine Heat Evolved/Absorbed & Temperature Changes for Reactions
Summary of Todays Lecture
1) Energy changes for reactions commonly are specified und
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #21 (W Oct 26):
Key Concept 8AFind the Final Temperature for Substances in Thermal Contact and
Key Concept 8BDetermine the Final Temperature for Processes with Phases Changes
Summary
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #20 (M Oct 24):
Key Concept 7ERelate Heat Transferred to Heat Capacity & a Temperature Difference
and Key Concept 7FApply the 1st Law of Thermodynamics
Summary of Todays Lecture
1) He
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #19 (Th Oct 20): Key Concept 7DDetermine PV Work
Key Concept 7D: Give a physical interpretation to the concept of PV work and calculate the
work done on/by a chemical system from vo
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #18 (W Oct 19): Key Concept 6GCalculate Masses of Reactants
Consumed and Products Produced, Key Concept 7AIdentify Limiting Reactants, and
Key Concept 7BRelate Actual & Theoretical Y
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #26 (M Nov 7):
Key Concepts 9FIdentify Activation Energies & Intermediates, 9GApply the
Arrhenius Equation, and 9HDescribe How Catalysts Work
Summary of Todays Lecture
1) Reaction pr
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #27 (W Nov 9): Key Concepts 10AApply the Law of Mass Action and
10BDetermine Equilibrium Constants
Summary of Todays Lecture
1) Chemical equilibrium occurs for reversible reactions wh
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #28 (Th Nov 10): Key Concepts 10CIdentify Direction Reaction
Proceeds and 10DDetermine Equilibrium Conditions
Summary of Todays Lecture
1) Equilibrium constants for a given reaction d
Everything you
always wanted to
know about trig*
Explained by
John Baber, A.B.,Cd.E.
*but were afraid to ask.
Any gure drawn on a piece of paper with straight edges can be split up into right triangles. Because of this, studying squares, rectangles, rhomb
UCONN  Math 1011Q
Rules of Exponents
1. Zero Exponent:
a0 = 1
2. Product Rule:
an am = an+m
3. Quotient Rule:
an
= anm
am
4. Negative Exponent:
a n =
1
an
To move a number or a symbol from the numerator to the denominator (or from the
denominator to the
UCONN  Math 1011Q
Radicals
n and m denote positive integers
( nth Root:
n a = b means b n = a
If n is even then: n a is not defined for a < 0, and n a is positive for a > 0.
If n is odd then: n a is always defined, and is uniquely determined by a.
( Ra
TI83/83 Plus: Finding a Quadratic
Model
The following pages contain some instructions on the usage of the TI83/83 Plus
graphing calculator.
The example used below is taken out of the text titled Calculus Concepts  An Informal
Approach to the Mathematic
UCONN  Math 1011Q
Lines
( Slope of Line L: m =
rise y2 y1
=
run x2 x1
where (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are points on L
If m > 0, the line is increasing
If m < 0, the line is decreasing
If m = 0, the line is horizontal
If m is undefined, the line is vertic
Limits and Continuity
lim a
xoc
a
For c being a number or + or  or a one
sided limit
lim a f(x)
xoc
a lim f(x)
xoc
lim f(x) r g(x)
xoc
lim f(x) g(x)
xoc
f(x)
lim
x o c g(x)
lim f(x) r lim g(x)
xoc
xoc
lim f(x) lim g(x)
xoc
xoc
lim f(x) lim g(x)
xoc
xoc
UCONN Math 1011Q
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
( Exponential Function y = bx ( for 0 < b 1 fixed number)
y = bx
for b > 1
for b < 1
Equality of exponents :
bx = bz is equivalent to x = z
( Logarithmic Functions y = logbx ( for 0 < b 1 fixed numbe
Basic Differentiation Formulas
In the table below, ? 0 B and @ 1B represent differentiable functions of B Derivative of a constant Derivative of constant multiple Derivative of sum or difference Product Rule Quotient Rule
.B . .B . .B
! (?) 
.? .B .? .B
Limits and Continuity
lim a a
xc
For c being a number or + or  or a one
sided limit
lim a f(x) a lim f(x)
xc
xc
lim f(x) g (x) lim f(x) lim g(x)
xc
xc
xc
lim f(x) g (x) lim f(x) lim g(x)
xc
xc
xc
f(x)
lim f(x) lim g(x)
lim
x c g (x)
xc
xc
n
lim f(x) lim
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #29 (M Nov 14): Key Concepts 10EApply LeChteliers Principle
and 10FIdentify Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs
Summary of Todays Lecture
1) A reaction at equilibrium responds to a change in vo
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #17 (M Oct 17): Key Concept 6FBalance Chemical Equations and
Key Concept 7C Predict Outcome of Precipitation Reactions
Key Concept 6F: Balance a chemical equation given the identitie
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2011
Notes for Lecture #16 (Th Oct 13): Key Concepts 6DDetermine Concentrations of
Gases Dissolved in Liquids and 6EEvaluate Colligative Properties
Key Concept 6D: Determine the concentrations of gases dis
CHEM 1151 General Chemistry for Engineers
Fall 2010
Notes for Lecture #15 (W Oct 12): Key Concepts 6ADetermine Properties of Gas
Mixtures, 6BRelate Amount of Solute, Volume of Solution, and Concentration of Solute,
and 6CDistinguish Different Types of
IONIC EQUILIBRIAin AQUEOUS SYSTEMS:
Equilibria of AcidBase Buffer System:

Buffers are shock absorbers
They protect the system from external shocks
Large impact is taken by them to keep system in order.
An acidbase buffer is a solution;
 It lessens t
Intermolecular Forces
Climbing Geckos
Geckos can adhere to almost any surface
Recent studies indicate that this amazing ability is related to intermolecular
attractive forces
Geckos have millions of tiny hairs on their feet that branch out and flatten out
ELECTOCHEMISTRY
OxidationReduction:
 Oxidation is loss of electrons
 Reduction is gain of electrons
 Oxidizing agent species that does oxidation taking electron from the substance
 Reducing agent species that does reduction giving electron to the sub