What is Frequency Hopping?
4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit :
8-bit processor : more than 3 billion new chips per
32-bit microprocessors : PowerPC, 68k, MIPS, and
ARM-based chips alone do about triple the volume
that Intel and AMD peddle to
Why Use Microcontrollers?
Microprocessors use much more logic to implement a function
than does custom logic.
But microprocessors are often at least as fast:
large design teams;
aggressive VLSI technology.
Why Use Microcontrollers?
Alternatives: field-programmable gate arrays
(FPGAs), custom logic, application specific
integrated circuit (ASIC), etc.
Microcontrollers are often very efficient: can use
same logic to perform many different functions.
Complex Instruction Set
One approach is to build sophisticated CPUs with
vast instruction sets, with an instruction ready
for every foreseeable operation.
This leads to the CISC, the Complex Instruction
Complexity of design leads to slow o
Every memory area gets its own address bus and
its own data bus.
Greater flexibility in bus size, but we pay for it
with a little more complexity.
With program memory and data memory each
having their own address and data buses, ea
Criteria for Choosing Controller
Meeting the computing needs of the task at hand
efficiency and cost effectively
Determine its type, 8-bit,16-bit or 32-bit
Packaging (40-Pin or QFP)
The amount of RAM and ROM
The number of I/O pins
PIC C program ROM
PIC exists in terms of different speed and the
amount of on-chip RAM/ROM
Compatibility is restricted as far as the
instructions are concerns.
Its used to store Program or code
PIC 18 can support up to 2MB
Generally, they come with 4
Late 1940s: MIT Whirlwind computer was
designed for real-time operations.
Originally designed to control an aircraft simulator.
First microprocessor was Intel 4004 in early
HP-35 calculator used several chips to
implement a microp
ENSC380 Lecture 11 Objectives:
Learn how to represent a periodic signal with its continuous time Fourier series
Atousa Hajshirmohammadi, SFU
CT Impulse Response
In the previous lectures we learned that the response of LTI systems
Academic Resource Center
Miller indices are used to specify directions
These directions and planes could be in
lattices or in crystals.
The number of indices will match with the
dimension of the lattice or the crys
SSE Lab 05:
Operation of Photo Transistor
Objective: To determine the sensitivity of Photo Transistor.
There are two things in the photo transistor. 1. Speed, 2. Sensitivity
Well discuss sensitivity of Photo-Transisitor in this lab.
An embedded system is any device that includes
a programmable computer but is not itself a
Since the system is usually dedicated to a
specific task, design engineer can optimize:
So.Starting off with a question
Embedded Systems mean?
An embedded system is any
programmable computer but is
not itself a general-purpose
computer, often with Real-time
PIC18 data RAM and EEPROM
Max. 4096 Bytes (4 kB) of data RAM space.
Data RAM space has two components
Varied GPR, General Purpose RAM
- For read/write and data manipulation
- Divided into banks of 256 B
Fixed SFR, Special Function Registers
Some of P