1. Unlike the tissue growth that occurs with hypertrophy and hyperplasia, the growth of a
2. In contrast to malignancies, benign tumors are characterized by:
A) a fibrous capsule.
An injured patient develops interstitial
edema as a result of decreased:
colloidal osmotic pressure.
The most reliable method for measuring
2. body water or fluid volume increas
1. Chronic stable angina, associated with inadequate blood flow to meet the metabolic
demands of the myocardium, is caused by:
A) fixed coronary obstruction.
B) increased collateral circulation.
C) intermittent vessel vasospasms.
D) excessive endothelial
1. An injured patient develops interstitial edema as a result of decreased:
A) vascular volume.
B) hydrostatic pressure.
C) capillary permeability.
D) colloidal osmotic pressure.
2. The most reliable method for measuring body water or fluid volume increas
1. Genetic disorders that involve a single gene trait are characterized by:
A) multifactorial gene mutations.
B) chromosome rearrangements.
C) Mendelian patterns of transmission.
D) abnormal numbers of chromosomes.
2. In addition to having a 50% chance of
1. Epithelialization, the first component of the proliferative phase of wound healing, is
delayed in open wounds until after _ has formed.
A) granulation tissue
B) fibrinous meshwork
C) capillary circulation
D) collagenous layers
2. A mutation has occurre
The pathophysiology of heart failure
involves an interaction between decreased
pumping ability and the _ to
maintain cardiac output.
1. With the exception of the first two steps, what is required in all steps of the clotting
C) Tissue factor
2. The first step of hemostasis occurs as a:
A) fibrin clot.
B) platelet plug.
C) clot retractio
1. Acute cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix characterized by:
A) abscess formation.
B) mucopurulent drainage.
C) thick gray-white plaques.
D) persistent pruritic vulvitis.
2. Carcinoma of the cervix is often considered to be a sexually transmitte
Chronic stable angina, associated with
inadequate blood flow to meet the
metabolic demands of the myocardium, is
fixed coronary obstruction.
increased collateral circulation.
intermittent vessel vasospasms.
1. The nucleus _, which is essential for function and survival of the cell.
A) is the site of protein synthesis
B) contains the genetic code
C) transforms cellular energy
D) initiates aerobic metabolism
2. Although energy is not made in mitochondria, they
1. The somatic nervous system provides sensory and motor innervation for:
A) peripheral nerves.
B) abdominal viscera.
C) secretory glands.
D) smooth muscle.
2. The proteins and other materials used by the axon are synthesized _ and then flow
down the axon
1. The function of the mucociliary blanket that lines the conducting airways is to:
A) dehumidify inhaled air.
B) remove foreign materials.
C) warm the moving gases.
D) spread antibacterial enzymes.
2. Above the glottis that opens and closes for speech, t
1. Ischemia and other toxic injuries increase the accumulation of intracellular calcium as a
A) release of stored calcium from the mitochondria.
B) improved intracellular volume regulation.
C) decreased influx across the cell membrane.
1. Cytokines that affect hematopoiesis in bone marrow are called colony-stimulating
factors (CSFs) based on their ability to:
A) support lymphocytes.
B) differentiate red cells.
C) regulate blood cells.
D) stimulate lymphocytes.
2. Leukocytes consist of t
1. The adipocytes in adipose tissue not only serve as a storage sites, they also:
A) produce linoleic fatty acid.
B) synthesize triglycerides.
C) increase glucagon release.
D) degrade fat-soluble vitamins.
2. Protein contains nitrogen. A negative nitrogen
1. A predominant effect of a prolonged excessive growth hormone level is:
A) short stature with obesity.
B) high androgen hormone levels.
C) increased blood glucose levels.
D) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) depletion.
2. The most common cause of hypothy
1. Because cholesterol is insoluble in plasma, it is mainly carried by the lipoprotein:
2. A major cause of secondary hyperlipoproteinemia is _, which increases the
production of VLDL and conversion to LDL.
1. More complex patterns of movements, such as throwing a ball or picking up a fork, are
controlled by the _ cortex in the frontal lobe.
B) primary motor
2. Disorders of the pyramidal tracts, such as a stroke, are
1. Although growth rate is variable among types of bacteria, the growth of bacteria is
A) biofilm communication.
B) availability of nutrients.
C) an intact protein capsid.
D) individual cell motility.
2. Treponema pallidum, the cause of syph
1. The characteristic, localized cardinal signs of acute inflammation include:
2. The vascular, hemodynamic stage of acute inflammation is initiated by momentary
vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation tha
1. In the arterial-venous circulatory system, pressure is inversely related to:
2. Turbulent blood flow can be caused by a number of factors, including:
A) increased velocity.
B) short vessel length.
1. When the kidneys have decreased perfusion or increased sympathetic nervous system
stimulation, renal blood flow goes mainly to the medulla in order to decrease _
while maintaining the _ of urine.
A) pressure; adequate output
B) electrolyte loss; acidic
1. Innate immunity, also called natural or native immunity, consists of mechanisms that
respond specifically to:
2. Adaptive immune responses, also called acquired or specific immunity, are compo
1. According to Walter B. Cannon, homeostasis is a stable internal environment achieved
through a system of:
A) interdependent system-wide adaptive responses.
B) variable internal and external conditioning factors.
C) coordinated physiologic processes tha
1. The somatosensory system consists of three types of sensory neurons. The special
somatic type of afferent sensory neurons has receptors that sense:
A) muscle position.
B) visceral fullness.
D) painful touch.
2. Proprioceptive somatosens
1. Although urinary obstruction and urinary incontinence have almost opposite effects on
urination, they can both result from:
A) bladder structure changes.
B) bladder wall atrophy.
C) micturition reflex spasms.
D) bladder distensibility loss.
2. The body
1. Abnormally high accumulation of bilirubin in the blood causes:
D) biliary cirrhosis.
2. The mechanisms of liver damage in viral hepatitis include:
A) direct cellular injury.
B) fatty liver changes.
1. The most common indicator of acute renal failure is:
2. A patient had excessive blood loss and prolonged hypotension during surgery. His
postoperative urine output is sharply decreased and his blood urea nit
1. The intracranial volume that is most capable of compensating for increasing intracranial
pressure is the:
A) brain cell tissue.
B) intravascular blood.
C) surface sulci fluid.
D) cerebrospinal fluid.
2. A late indicator of increased intracranial pressu