Unit Exam 1: Pathophysiology
1. Multifactorial inheritance disorders, such as cleft palate are often caused by _ during
a) Multi gene mutations
b) Dominant gene expression
c) X-linked crossover problem
d) Polyploidy of chromosomes
A 45-year-old woman tested positive for BRCA1. She has a family history of breast cancer and
lost her mother at the age of 50 from breast cancer. She has been receiving yearly
mammograms, but now with this discovery of the BRCA1, she is even more concerne
A 2-week-old baby girl has Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome. An 80-year-old man has
Emphysema. A 50-year-old female has Pulmonary Fibrosis.
a. The mechanics of breathing is greatly compromised in all these cases; explain why.
A 24-year-old male client was in a house fire and received third-degree burns over
60% of his body. He is both edematous and dehydrated.
a. What aspects of fluid exchange need to be critically examined?
The transfer of water between the vascular and inter
Describe tissues and cells that contribute to immunity. Include a picture of the tissues/cells.
Cells of the immune system consist of phagocytic leukocytes, lymphocytes, and antigenpresenting cells. Included in the cells that help to contribute to immunit
Develop a chart that includes the structure and function of the following: Skin, Melanocytes,
Dermis, Nails, Hair
Consists of two main layers: a superficial
and thinner epithelial tissue layer, called
Hemostasis refers to our bodys natural ability to stop blood flow to prevent blood loss by
hemorrhaging. It is an important process that maintains blood fluidity and prevents blood from
leaving the vascular compartment.
Hemostasis can be broken down into
Define the following:
Spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes, and is the sequence of events
that leads to the formation of male germ cells or spermatozoa. The process begins shortly
before puberty and continues throughout a mans
Develop a table that includes all secretions of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Include the source and
function of each.
Liver but stored in the
Left Sided Heart Failure
Congestive Heart Failure
Right Sided Heart Failure
Simply put, it is the failure of
the heart to properly pump
out blood to the body
Fluid collects around the
Essentially, right sided heart
failure results in back-ups in
Homeostasis the ability of the cell to maintain a stable internal environment despite internal
and external factors that may affect the cell. It is achieved through a system of carefully
coordinated physiologic processes that oppose change, and involves r
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism brought about by
impaired beta cell synthesis or release of insulin, or the inability of tissues to use insulin
Create a diagram that illustrates Glomerulonephritis. Briefly explain the pathophysiology of the
The causative agents that produce glomerular injury include immunologic, nonimmunologic,
and hereditary mechanisms. Although many glomer
Hypoxia refers to an inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue that is below physiologic levels
despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood
Hypoxemia refers to a reduction in PO2 of the arterial blood and can result from an inadequate
amount of O2 in th
You have been asked to prepare a lecture on the similarities and the difference between
Hemophilia and von Willebrand disease.
a. What are the similarities?
Hemophilia A (VIII) and von Willebrand are both coagulation disorders that result
You have been asked to prepare a presentation on kidney function.
a. Explain the two major systems that are credited with maintaining the constancy of renal
blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate.
The kidneys are perfused with 20 to 25%
A 2-year-old boy starts to eat a peanut butter cookie and vomits immediately. He starts to cry
and pulls on his tongue. He has facial edema.
a. What is happening to the child's Immune System?
The child is having a Type I hypersensitivity (alle
Unit 2 Quiz
1. The prevalence of childhood obesity has remained stable over the last 10 years.
2. The sympathetic nervous system manifestation of the stress reaction has been called the
Unit 1 Quiz
1. Erythrocytes play a central role in the physiology of inflammation
2. Prolonged exposure to cold increases blood viscosity and induces vasoconstriction
3. Cells communicate with each other by means of chemi
Unit 5 Quiz
1. The heart extracts and uses 60% to 80% of oxygen in blood flowing through the coronary
2. Afterload represents the force that the contracting heart must generate to eject blood
from the filled heart.
Unit 4 Quiz
1. Viruses are capable of replicating outside of a living cell.
2. Passive immunity represents a type of immunity that is transferred from another source,
such as in utero transfer of antibodies from mother to infant.
Unit 3 Quiz
1. The rate at which hemoglobin is synthesized depends on the availability of iron for heme
2. White blood cells (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) are formed in the bone
Unit 6 Quiz
1. Influenza is a viral infection that can affect the upper and lower respiratory tracts and is
transmitted by aerosol or direct contact.
2. Primary tuberculosis represents reinfection from either inhaled droplet nuclei or
Unit 7 Quiz
1. The storage and emptying of urine involve voluntary (somatic nervous system) control
2. The kidneys perform both excretory and endocrine functions.
3. Large molecules, such as protein, easily cross th
Unit 10 Quiz
1. All levels of spinal cord injury necessitate assistance to maintain breathing.
2. The parasympathetic nervous system functions in maintaining vital functions and
responding when there is a critical threat to the integrity
Unit 9 Quiz
1. Moon face, buffalo hump, obesity, amenorrhea, and increased facial hair are
manifestations of Cushing Syndrome.
2. Hypopituitarism is characterized by a decreased secretion of pituitary hormones.
How would you explain the difference between absorption and secretion between the
small and large intestine?
The small intestine secretes digestive juices and receives secretions from the liver and
pancreas. Several types of mucus-producing glands (Brunne
The immune system and nervous system are regulated by hormones. Explain how these systems
are influenced by the control of the endocrine system.
The endocrine system uses chemical messengers called hormones as a way of controlling the
flow of information
A 26-year-old female who has a history of obesity wants to begin an exercise program. She
is seeking information about how to improve her general health.
a. How would you approach the concept of metabolism as an energy source?
Metabolism is the internal b