material (polyamide) showed good durability.
We would like to acknowledge the IMCRC at Loughborough University who
provided funding for this research.
Cavanagh, P.R. (1980), The Running Shoe Book. Mountain View, Anderson World,
sustained sub-maximal contraction of the brachioradialis muscle. Journal of
Electromyography and Kinesiology, 12(2), 111-118.
Merletti, R., and Lo Conte, L.R. (1997), Surface EMG signal processing during
isometric contractions. Journal of Electromyography
problem and measures to limit development of MSDs are being undertaken,
according to an European survey up to 25% of workers report back pain and 23%
muscular pain. Musculoskeletal load can be referred to as external (dependant on
parameters describing pe
and converted into a STL file) using a Geomagic Studio 10 software (version: 10;
Geomagic, Inc, Durham, USA). Parts were manufactured from DuraForm PA
(polyamide), using selective laser sintering, an AM process technology. The process
was similar to the o
construction on foot and leg movement. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 30(4), 550-555.
Salles, A.S., and Gyi, D.E. (2009), The specification of personalised footwear for
rapid manufacturing: a pilot study. Proceedings of the fifth World Confe
year is more than 40 times, (see table 1). The low implementation costs of these
projects are due to optimum utilization of factory resources. All projects were
initiated, designed and implemented by the factory employees. They also used
mostly scrap or u
average, the runners in the control condition reported some discomfort in 38% (058%) of their training sessions, whereas the participants in the personalised group in
20% (0-80%). Both groups attributed their discomfort, in the majority of cases, to
decrease in the risk of injury for the participants in the two groups. However, no
significant differences were found between the control and personalised conditions
for these injury risk variables over the 3 month period.
In addition, no significant diff
Mohammed-Aminu S. (2006), Four case studies on commercialisation of
government Rand D agencies, Doctoral Thesis, Lule University of
Technology 33, Sweden.
ONeill, D., (2005), The promotion of ergonomics in industrially developing
than before. Employees are more engaged in company affairs and help in
solving problems and contributing to company progress. As the result of the
ergonomics project, they also benefited financially. Most of them received
into account the posture of the upper limb. Time characteristic is described by the
cycle duration (CT), number of phases in the cyckle (k) and duration of given cycle
phase (DPi where i number of work cycle periods, 1 i k).
Force connected with performin
Hong Kong. Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, pp. 81-88.
Goske, S., Erdemir, A., Petre, M., Budhabhatti, S., and Cavanagh, P.R. (2006),
Reduction of plantar heel pressures: insole design using finite element
registered with application of surface EMG transfers information related to one
muscle or even few muscles. Since array electrodes transfer information on a level
of motor unit.
Analysis of specific attributes of EMG signal is one of the most often applie
The paired samples Students t-test was used to detect significant differences
between the two experimental groups for the variables (discomfort ratings, plantar
pressure distribution, rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation and vertical
cost saving due to the implementation of an exceptional proposal, the SC
together with MD can suggest higher financial rewards to the members of the
The process, after two years has resulted in many benefits both for the factory
long period of time.
Cumulative WMSDs can stem from a wide range of factors, that together create an
inadequate margin between peoples work demands and the coping resources
available to them. As risk factors in WMSDs development are considered physical
The repetitive task indicator (RTI) is a function of the load resulting from
performing one work cycle of any duration (ICL), cycle duration (CT) and number
of cycle phases (k) (Figure 2).
FIGURE 2. Repetitive Task Indicator as a function of ICL and V (CT
month period. This is likely to be attributed to the small sample size.
The anthropometric measurements and scan data were used in the design of the
personalised insoles. Two foot length measurements taken from the most posterior
projecting point on t
activity, one for the working groups and one for the steering committee that
was prepared by the project supervisor were discussed with participants and
were approved unanimously.
A rewards system was designed to recognise the WTs achievements and
talking about better coordination of various divisions towards achieving
company goals, learning new methods for solving problems and better
atmosphere for discussion, exchange of ideas and expressing own views.
According to the company management, the mo
efficient at absorbing impact shocks. They have more rearfoot inversion, resulting
in higher lateral loadings and higher peak pressures (Cavanagh, 1980; McKenzie et
al., 1985, Morag and Cavanagh, 1999; Williams III et al., 2001b). These are
comparison of RTI with DC and CTS parameters for 15 analyzed types of work
tasks. Generally for those types of work stands for which RTI was higher DC and
CTS was higher too. Spearman correlation coefficent between RTI and indicator of
arm and forearm/han
surface, vibration, temperature, etc. MSD appears mainly in nerves, muscles and tissues
around the neck, shoulders, waist, and upper and lower limbs. This study was conducted
with an automobile part manufacturing company with around 800 workers.
In this s
Springer, New York, pp. 491-499.
McKenzie, D.C., Clement, D.B., and Tauton, J.E. (1985), Running shoes, orthotics
and injuries. Sports Medicine, 2, 334-347.
Menz, H.B., and Morris, M.E. (2005), Footwear characteristics and foot problems
in older people. G
to the workers.
3) The doctor with the rehabilitation medicine conducted examination twice
semiannually, and diagnosed those with musculoskeletal problems, those
who needed special medical attention, and those who wanted to be
examined. For workers whose
Investigation of MSD risk factors by work and work environment
Based on the results of evaluation, we applied many ergonomic
improvement activities to the workplace including changing the way of
moving Avante 1 automobile assemb
Tools of Occupational
Reduction of MSDs
Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute
Czerniakowska 16, 00-701
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are wi
of upper limb model and parameters, which characterize cycle load. In conclusion it
can be stated that complex assessment of risk of MSDs development needs
application of both internal and external load assessment methods.
Keywords: occupational biome
Participants had both feet scanned and 16 anthropometric measurements of the
right foot taken. A single-blind paired samples experimental design was used and
participants were paired according to: gender, age, body mass index and km ran per
week. Thirty e
a doctor with the rehabilitation medicine and sent immediately to
cooperative hospitals and clinics for treatment and precise examination
such as EMG and X-ray.
Investigation of the situation and condition at the workplace
For the investigation of the sit