Internet connectivity problems
Depletion of non renewable resources
Low efficiency in usage of renewable sources
Lack of concentration in stud
Fuels and Combustion
Fuel is a combustible substance, which on combustion
produces a large amount of heat, which can be used for
various domestic and industrial purposes.
The process of combustion involves oxidation of carbon,
hydrogen etc. of the fuels
Corrosion and its control
Unit - 2
Natural Abundance of Metals
In the form of oxides, carbonates,
chlorides, silicates etc.
Any process of deterioration and
consequent loss of solid metallic material,
through an unwanted chemical or electroche
Sources of Water
1. Rainwater. It is the purest form of natural water. But unfortunately it
dissolves the toxic gases like CO2, SO2, NO2 etc. and other solids.
2. Sea water. It is the most impure form of water containing about 3.5%
dissolved salts of whic
Batteries and Fuel Cells
Module - 6
Introduction - Basics
An Electrochemical cell
An electrochemical cell is a device in which a redox reaction is
utilized to get electrical energy.
Commonly referred to as voltaic or galvanic cell.
The electrode where oxi
Primary Lithium batteries
1. One of the main attractions of lithium as an anode material is its
position as the most electronegative metal in the
electrochemical series combined with its low density, thus
offering the largest amount of electrical energy p
Numerical Problems related to Hardness:
Calculate the temporary and permanent hardness of a water sample, having
the following analysis. Given: Mg(HCO
3)2 = 73 mg/l; Ca(HCO3)2 = 162 mg/l;
CaSO4 = 136 mg/l; MgCl2 = 95 m
The rate of corrosion can be controlled by either
modifying the metal or the environment.
1. Proper Designing
A major factor in the corrosion failure of a component is
a faulty geometrical design.
Some important design principles are:
Protective coating: Protects the metal from corrosion by acting as a barrier
between the metal and the environment.
Anodic metal coating: Metal anodic to base metal is coated (Zn coating over iron)
Cathodic metal coati
An Electrochemical cell
An electrochemical cell is a device in which a
redox reaction is utilized to get electrical
Commonly referred to as voltaic or galvanic
The electrode where oxidation occurs
Basic terms in polymer science
Polymer : Polymers are complex and giant molecules which are
made from joining a large number of small and simple molecules
by primary valency linkage.
Monomer : The individual small and simple molecules from which
Digital Logic and Design
1. A base conversion calculator takes the input A1B.52 and produces the
output as per the user option in the following number system
Binary number system
Octal number system
iii) Decimal number system
iv) BCD n
1. GIVE BRIEF ABOUT POLYMERS USED IN AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY
ANS:There are many examples in a modern car of weight savings made possible by polymers:
polymers-made bumpers are up to10.4 kilograms lighter, engine covers 4.2 kilograms
lighter and polymers fuel
Aim: To determine the pH of the pool water using indicators
In simple terms, pH is the logarithmic measure between Hydrogen (H+) and Hydroxide (OH-) ions
present in the water.
Hydrogen ions cannot exist alone, but they exist after combining
1. What is meant by Nanotechnology? Give a brief account on its application in
2. Explain the source and any two treatment methodologies for the ground water
contaminated by arsenic in West Bengal.
3. Using nanotechnology how the heavy
Thin film coatings
It is the process of depositing some materials over solid surfaces. Important
process of this is Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). This is a process of
depositing some material by atom by atom or molecule by molecule or ion
by ion. The
General Instructions for the entire question paper:
Why does a metal get corroded faster in coastal environment as
compared to tropical environment?
Iron corrodes faster than aluminum even though iron is placed
60C. The current efficiency is 8-12%. Pb-Sn or Pb-Sb alloy coated with
PbO2 is used as anode. The plating is used for corrosion resistance and
Thin film coatings
It is the process of depositing some materials over solid surfaces. Import
A variety of vacuum coating techniques,
used to deposit a thin film (nm to m)
coating on target
Growth of thin film on surface of h