Science in Ancient India
Subhash C. Kak
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5901, USA
November 15, 2005
In Ananya: A portrait of India, S.R. Sridhar and N.K. Mattoo (eds.). AIA: New York,
1997, pages 399-420
Veda means knowledge. Since we c
Ancient Science and Medicine in
India Science and technology in ancient
India covered all the major
branches of human knowledge and
activities, including mathematics,
astronomy, physics, chemistry,
medical science and surgery, fine
arts, mechanical and pr
What is Archaeology?
Archaeology is the study of the ancient and recent human past through material remains. It is
a subfield of anthropology, the study of all human culture. From million-year-old fossilized
remains of our earliest human ancestors in Afri
Tipu Sultan (1750-1799) known as the tiger of Mysore
was a soldier, scholar and poet.
He was the son of Hyder Ali and Fatima fakhr un-nisa.
Introduction of new coinage.
Land revenue system
Ancient Education System in INDIA
The Ancient Education System in India has a long history for organized education.
The Gurukul system was considered as one of the oldest structures of education system.
Gurukul systems were traditional residential schools
Dr. B. Morarji
Culture is defined as; the tanning and the
refinement of mind, taste and Manner: the
Intellectual side of a civilization.
The basic elements of the culture are :
Moral values, norms, Religious and ideas.
The Ethical values are the most i
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT
LAST GREAT STRUGGLE OF THE CONGRESS TO DRIVE OUT THE
Quit India Movement
Circumstances leading to Quit India Movement.
Quit India resolution, August 8, 1942.
Phase of the Quit India Movement.
Gandhis Quit India Speech.
Base of Indian National Movement broadened under Gandhiji:
(1) Gandhiji as peoples leader: It was no longer a movement of professionals and intellectuals, now
hundreds of thousands of peasants, workers and artisans also participated.
(2) He identified him
Factors responsible for the growth
of Indian Nationalism:
The British exploitation of Indian mass for a
century and more created hatred and animosity in
the mind of the latter towards the former. The
introduction of western education was an eyeopener for
Religious views of Akbar
The religious innovation of Akbar is a debated issue in the history of Mughal
India. With the Akbars accession to the throne, new devices for successful rule
over the Muslim and the non-Muslim subjects were adopted
In India the Guru or the teacher is
held in high esteem.
Indeed, there is an understanding
that if the devotee were presented
with the guru and God, first he
would pay respect to the guru, since
the guru had been instrumental in
leading him to God.
Indus Valley Civilization
1. Discovery of Indus Valley Civilization
2. Origins of Indus Valley Civilization
3. Geography of Indus Valley
5. Trade and Commerce and Links with
6. Theories Concerning the
Arts & Humanities
Beauty & Style
Business & Finance
Cars & Transportation
Computers & Internet
MODULE - 1
THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
In the previous chapter you learnt that the people in the prehistoric times used tools
and weapons made of stone. Later man started using metals. Copper was the first
metal to be used by man for m
THE GREAT REVOLT OF 1857
The 1857 Revolt sowed the seeds of Indian nationalism, which lay dormant in the subconscious
of the Indian people. It started the movement which was a continuous struggle against the British rule
till 1947. Hence, the nature, char
MODULE - I
ave you ever thought of the amazing progress we, as human beings, have made in
various spheres of life, be it language, literature, art and architecture, science or
religion? Have yo
MODULE - 4
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
The History of our freedom movement is not a single homogeneous story. It has several diverse
strands that intertwine and influence each other and unfold into the narrative of a struggle of o
Q: Why the Hindu oppose the partition of Bengal between 1905 and
ANS: The partition of Bengal was enforced in 1905 by Viceroy Lord Curzon
for administration purposes. The new province of East Bengal happened to
be a Muslim majority province, whi
SOURCES OF ANCIENT INDIAN
Dr. BANGALORE MORARJI
Introduction- Sources are essential for writing the history of Ancient
India. The chief among these are: Literary Sources and
Literary Sources:A. Religious literature
MODULE - VI
Science and Technology in India
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ike people in any other part of the world Indians too, have a rich legacy of scientific
ideas. A desire to now the unknown, accompanied with expe
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526-1707)
Under the Mughals, India was the heart
of a great Islamic empire and a prolific
center of Islamic culture and learning.
Dynasty was the greatest, richest and
longest lasting Muslim dynasty to rule
This period of Mug
What is Colonialism
Colonialismis the establishment, exploitaton, maintenance,
acquisiton and expansion ofcoloniesin one territory by
people from another territory. Colonialism is a set of unequal
relatonships between the colonists and theindigenous
1. Main Causes of the Failure of the Revolt of 1857
The Revolt of 1857 could not be successful on account of the following factors (reasons):
a) Lack of unity and cohesion:
Many state rulers e.g. the Scindias, Holkars, Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab of Bhopal,
The Revolt of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indias First War of
The Indian Mutiny
The Uprising of 1857
The Sepoy Mutiny
The Sepoy Rebellion
Origins of the Rebellion
1. New Agrarian Po
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1919-1947
His original name : Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Later called Mahatma the Great Soul
Raised in moral Hindu household
Married at early age (early teens)
Studied Law in England
Practiced law br
Analyze the character and policy of Tippu Sultan
Introduction of a new system of coinage, new scales of weights and
Improvisations in the fields of agriculture, trade and commerce.
Abandonment of the custom of giving jagirs and reduction in t
: MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI
Date of Birth : 2nd October 1869.
Place of Birth : Porbandar, Guajarat, British India.
Date of Death : 30th January 1948.
Place of Death : New Delhi, India.
: Karamchand Gandhi
Chandragupta Maurya was the
architect of the Mauryan
The nature of Mauryan polity was
THE MAURYAN ADMINISTRATION
ROLE OF TAMIL NADU IN THE INDIAN
Tamil Nadu played an important role in the Indian National Movement. Even prior to the Great
Revolt of 1857, the rebellion in PanchalamKuruchi, the 1801 South Indian Rebellion of the Marudu
brothers and t
7. Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom struggle
One of the greatest men in the history of India is unarguably Mahatma Gandhi. The way he gave shape
and character to India's freedom struggle is worthy of a standing ovation. He sacrificed his own life for