Science in Ancient India
Subhash C. Kak
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5901, USA
November 15, 2005
In Ananya: A portrait of India, S.R. Sridhar and N.K. Mattoo (eds.). AIA: New York,
1997, pages 399-420
Veda means knowledge. Since we c
Arts & Humanities
Beauty & Style
Business & Finance
Cars & Transportation
Computers & Internet
MODULE - 1
THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
In the previous chapter you learnt that the people in the prehistoric times used tools
and weapons made of stone. Later man started using metals. Copper was the first
metal to be used by man for m
THE GREAT REVOLT OF 1857
The 1857 Revolt sowed the seeds of Indian nationalism, which lay dormant in the subconscious
of the Indian people. It started the movement which was a continuous struggle against the British rule
till 1947. Hence, the nature, char
MODULE - I
ave you ever thought of the amazing progress we, as human beings, have made in
various spheres of life, be it language, literature, art and architecture, science or
religion? Have yo
MODULE - 4
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
The History of our freedom movement is not a single homogeneous story. It has several diverse
strands that intertwine and influence each other and unfold into the narrative of a struggle of o
Q: Why the Hindu oppose the partition of Bengal between 1905 and
ANS: The partition of Bengal was enforced in 1905 by Viceroy Lord Curzon
for administration purposes. The new province of East Bengal happened to
be a Muslim majority province, whi
SOURCES OF ANCIENT INDIAN
Dr. BANGALORE MORARJI
Introduction- Sources are essential for writing the history of Ancient
India. The chief among these are: Literary Sources and
Literary Sources:A. Religious literature
MODULE - VI
Science and Technology in India
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ike people in any other part of the world Indians too, have a rich legacy of scientific
ideas. A desire to now the unknown, accompanied with expe
Indus Valley Civilization
1. Discovery of Indus Valley Civilization
2. Origins of Indus Valley Civilization
3. Geography of Indus Valley
5. Trade and Commerce and Links with
6. Theories Concerning the
In India the Guru or the teacher is
held in high esteem.
Indeed, there is an understanding
that if the devotee were presented
with the guru and God, first he
would pay respect to the guru, since
the guru had been instrumental in
leading him to God.
Religious views of Akbar
The religious innovation of Akbar is a debated issue in the history of Mughal
India. With the Akbars accession to the throne, new devices for successful rule
over the Muslim and the non-Muslim subjects were adopted
Ancient Science and Medicine in
India Science and technology in ancient
India covered all the major
branches of human knowledge and
activities, including mathematics,
astronomy, physics, chemistry,
medical science and surgery, fine
arts, mechanical and pr
What is Archaeology?
Archaeology is the study of the ancient and recent human past through material remains. It is
a subfield of anthropology, the study of all human culture. From million-year-old fossilized
remains of our earliest human ancestors in Afri
Tipu Sultan (1750-1799) known as the tiger of Mysore
was a soldier, scholar and poet.
He was the son of Hyder Ali and Fatima fakhr un-nisa.
Introduction of new coinage.
Land revenue system
Ancient Education System in INDIA
The Ancient Education System in India has a long history for organized education.
The Gurukul system was considered as one of the oldest structures of education system.
Gurukul systems were traditional residential schools
Dr. B. Morarji
Culture is defined as; the tanning and the
refinement of mind, taste and Manner: the
Intellectual side of a civilization.
The basic elements of the culture are :
Moral values, norms, Religious and ideas.
The Ethical values are the most i
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT
LAST GREAT STRUGGLE OF THE CONGRESS TO DRIVE OUT THE
Quit India Movement
Circumstances leading to Quit India Movement.
Quit India resolution, August 8, 1942.
Phase of the Quit India Movement.
Gandhis Quit India Speech.
Base of Indian National Movement broadened under Gandhiji:
(1) Gandhiji as peoples leader: It was no longer a movement of professionals and intellectuals, now
hundreds of thousands of peasants, workers and artisans also participated.
(2) He identified him
Factors responsible for the growth
of Indian Nationalism:
The British exploitation of Indian mass for a
century and more created hatred and animosity in
the mind of the latter towards the former. The
introduction of western education was an eyeopener for
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526-1707)
Under the Mughals, India was the heart
of a great Islamic empire and a prolific
center of Islamic culture and learning.
Dynasty was the greatest, richest and
longest lasting Muslim dynasty to rule
This period of Mug
What is Colonialism
Colonialismis the establishment, exploitaton, maintenance,
acquisiton and expansion ofcoloniesin one territory by
people from another territory. Colonialism is a set of unequal
relatonships between the colonists and theindigenous
1. Main Causes of the Failure of the Revolt of 1857
The Revolt of 1857 could not be successful on account of the following factors (reasons):
a) Lack of unity and cohesion:
Many state rulers e.g. the Scindias, Holkars, Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab of Bhopal,
What are the Three Stages of Colonialism?
The three stages of colonialism are:
(1) First Stage: Monopoly Trade and Plunder:
The first stage had two basic objectives. In order to make trade more profitable
indigenously manufactured goods were to be bought
1. What are the sources of history and state its importance of
archaeological source for the reconstruction of the ancient Indian history?
a. Source of History:
Historians collect information from various trails for reconstructing history. The
The Quit India Movement
Failure of the Cripps' Mission and worsening of the world situation due to
the extension of hostilities in Asia, offered new opportunities before the
Indians for struggle against the British.
In 1942 the appearance
The establishment of Mauryan empire mark the
beginning of new era in the history of India. It put an
end to the age old Nanda tyranny and liberated India
from the Macedonian yoke. It provided for the first
time political unity and administr
Jhansi ki Rani Rani Laxmibai
Rani Laxmibai was one of the leading warriors of the Indias first struggle of independence in
Rani Laxmibais courage, deeds of valour and heroic battle against the British and her
progressive views on womens empowerment
The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Maruthu and
Chinna Maruthu) ruled Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu
towards the end of the 18th century. They were the
first to issue a proclamation of independence from
the British rule from Tr
THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1917-1947)
Advent of Gandhi
The third and final phase of the Nationalist Movement [1917-1947] is known as the Gandhian
era. During this period Mahatma Gandhi became the undisputed leader of the National Movement. His