Why study DNS
! An important piece of Internet infrastructure
Every computer on the Internet uses it
e.g. URL # DNS query #IP address # set up TCP conn
CS217A, Lecture 8
! Has been a great success
Domain Name System (DNS)
! How does it work?
! What can
What this course is about
! How Internet works
Internet Architecture & Protocols
The protocol architecture
email WWW VoIP.
SMTP HTTP DNS.
TCP UDP RTP.
! The set of protocols to cover
IP (RFC791, 792), IPv6 (RFC2460)
Transport: TCP (
What the world sees
CS217A, Lecture 2
1. Introduction to IETF
email WWW VoIP.
SMTP HTTP DNS.
TCP UDP RTP.
copper ber radio.
The IETF Hierarchy
Why study this protocol
! Transport protocol for real time applications
! Where it came from: developed to ll a need
CS217A, Lecture 5
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
Early 90s: VAT, vic (LBL), nv (Xerox PARC), IVS (Inria)
! Now: widely used
Distance Vector Protocols:
RA has to trust RB and RC for any info beyond them
Tke look at 1st 2 octet wen it has to create an update
RC will send to RB as it is same for him
Classless RP understand VLSM and perform CIDR
Takes 16 hops to detect
R1 takes it
Why study SCTP
! Where SCTP came from
CS217A, Lecture 4
Stream Control Transmission
Initiated by telecom people
to transmit telephone control data over IP networks
# TCP not good enough
Became an IETF proposed standard in 2000
CS217A, Lecture 3
Lecture slides: https:/ccle.ucla.edu/. . .
Everything else: http:/www.cs.ucla.edu/classes/cs217/
Mailing list: http:/www.cs.ucla.edu/mailman/listinfo/cs217
Where did TCP, UDP come from?
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON C
1.Provide a path to routers so they can find best route to destination theur given nodes
Database: contains entire info of autonomous system
Consists of vertices and edges
Hello : m alive. to keep link up and running
LSA: I send my routing table to all .f
1.Target @ home nd buld automation & controls
2. Priary drivers:
Long battery life
Rangle 10-30 mts
Msgs- short. No file transfers
Similar to wifi
Client units: sleep most of d time. Wake under
Network layer protocol responsible fr taking decision of finding path to destination.
Datagram packet delivery systems
-Responsible fr routing packets
-breaks a packet into smaller packets,if req
-No error control
The internet protocol does not provide a
What is pointer in c programming?
Explain pointers in c
Pointer is a user defined data type which creates special
types of variables which can hold the address of
primitive data type likechar, int, float, double or user
defined data type like function, po
Vehicle-vehicle communication: exchange pieces later
People with shared interests\goals can pervasively and seamlessly collaborate using
7DS: Seven Degrees of Separation:
Increase data availability by enabling dev
Not standalone part of Oracle RDBMS and can reside in 2 environments,
client and server
1. Reduce network traffic: more efficient. network traffic reduced
PL\SQL statement are a block of sql statements. single unit
With one exception, extension headers are not examined or processed
by any node along a packet's delivery path, until the packet reaches
the node (or each of the set of nodes, in the case of multicast)
identified in the Destination Address field of the IP
1) Say you have a string:
How would you separate the string into separate words, return either the sentence with
spaces or as a list/array where each entry is a word
Given a 2-d array and a dictionary. Find words formed verticall
Address earlier represented in binary form.
To make sure we dnt run out of IP addresses
: instead of writing 0
2. IP checksum removed. TCP and UDP mandatory
3. Separate extension header
Traffic Class: maintain functional
On-demand routing techniques to avoid channel overhead nd improve scalability. Fwd
group-a set of nodes responsible fr fwd multicast data on shortest paths, to build a fwd mesh
fr each multicast group.
For Mobile nd Adhoc networks
1. ICMP is actually an integral part of IP, and
must be implemented by every IP module.
2. ICMP messages are sent in several situations:
for example, when a
datagram cannot reach its destination, when the gateway does not have
the buffering capacity to fo
Transpose of a matrix is obtained by changing rows to columns and columns to rows. In other words,
transpose of A is obtained by changing A[i][j] to A[j][i].
/ This function stores transpose of A in B
void transpose(int A[N], int B[N])